corona

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See also: Corona, coroná, and coronà

English[edit]

The Sun's corona [1] and prominences during a total solar eclipse
A lunar corona [2] as seen from Minnesota, United States
The Barbarossa Chandelier in Aachen Chatedral, an example of a corona [6]
Narcissus flowers with an outer white corolla and a central yellow corona [8.4]
The morphology of a coronavirus, with its corona [8.5] formed by surface projections (red)
Artemis, the largest corona [11] identified on the surface of Venus

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (US) enPR: kərō'nə, IPA(key): /kəˈɹoʊnə/
    • (file)

Etymology 1[edit]

Borrowed from Latin corōna (garland, crown), from Ancient Greek κορώνη (korṓnē, garland, wreath), from Proto-Indo-European *(s)ker- (to turn, bend). Doublet of crown.

Noun[edit]

corona (plural coronas or coronae or coronæ)

  1. (astronomy) The luminous plasma atmosphere of the Sun or other star, extending millions of kilometres into space, most easily seen during a total solar eclipse.
    • 1891, John Martin Schaeberle, A Mechanical Theory of the Solar Corona:
      The theoretical corona is caused by light emitted and reflected from streams of matter ejected from the Sun, by forces which, in general, act along lines normal to the surface of the Sun; these forces are most active near the center of each Sun-spot zone.
    • 2010, Leon Golub; Jay M. Pasachoff, The Solar Corona, 2nd edition, Cambridge University Press, page 1:
      The corona is a high-temperature portion of the Sun's outer atmosphere, beginning slightly above the visible surface and extending hundreds of thousands of kilometers, or further, into interplanetary space.
  2. (meteorology) A circle or set of circles visible around a bright celestial object, especially the Sun or the Moon, attributable to an optical phenomenon produced by the diffraction of its light by small water droplets or tiny ice crystals.
    • 2013, Deltrice Alfred Grossmith, Arctic Warriors: A Personal Account of Convoy PQ18:
      The increasing light eventually erases the moon's glowing corona, her pendant chandelier of light pales into insignificance as the new day breaks.
  3. (by extension) Any luminous or crownlike ring around an object or person.
    • 1980, Philip Caputo, Horn of Africa, New York, NY: Vintage Books, published 2002, page 446:
      It looked like a miniaturized version of Hiroshima. Fires burned here and there. [] His once and future presidential palace was a crater ringed by a corona of flaming debris.
    • 2005 Summer, Lauren Wilcox, “Dale Hawkins: That's Guitar Playing”, in Oxford American (Southern Music Issue; 7)‎[1], number 50, page 16–20:
      Hawkins is a tall man, angular and knobby, with a rubbery, animated face and a corona of wavy gray hair, which he wears wet-combed back in a modified old-time pompadour.
    • 2015, Rawles Marie Lumumba, Duskfall:
      Vigil sat across from her, leaning against the wall of what looked like a cave, his corona glowing dimly.
  4. (electricity) A luminous appearance caused by corona discharge, often seen as a bluish glow in the air adjacent to pointed metal conductors carrying high voltages.
    • 2004, K.H. Becker, Non-Equilibrium Air Plasmas at Atmospheric Pressure, page 42:
      For instance, a corona arising spontaneously around high-voltage wires of an electrical power transmission line results in a loss of electrical energy.
  5. (architecture) The large, flat, projecting member of a cornice which crowns the entablature, situated above the bed moulding and below the cymatium.
    Synonyms: drip, larmier
    • 2002, John Milnes Baker, American House Styles: A Concise Guide, page 39:
      Though somewhat verbose, the author is specific in his instruction that the S-shaped crown molding, the cymarecta, caps the top of the pediment and is not returned on the horizontal corona.
  6. A large, round pendent chandelier, with spikes around its upper rim to hold candles or lamps, usually hung from the roof of a church.
    Synonym: corona lucis
    • 1865 February, J. H. Parker, “Aix-la-Chapelle”, in The Gentleman's Magazine and Historical Review, volume 18 (218), London: John Henry and James Parker, page 133:
      The magnificent bronze corona, or luminaria, which still hangs in the central octagon, shews the skill of the workmen in bronze of that period.
  7. (historical, Ancient Rome) A crown or garland bestowed among the Romans as a reward for distinguished services.
    • 1842, Leonhard Schmitz, “lemniscus”, in William Smith, editor, A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, London: Taylor and Walton, page 557:
      From the remark of Servius (ad Aen. v. 269) it appears that coronae adorned with lemnisci were a greater distinction than those without them.
    • 1997 January, Lawrence Keppie, “Military service in the Late Republic: the evidence of inscriptions and sculpture”, in Journal of Roman Military Equipment Studies, volume 8, page 8:
      Funerary inscriptions of soldiers under the Empire are frequently accompanied by representation of the dona militaria awarded during service. We instantly recognise depictions of torques, armillae, phalerae (often attached to a special harness), and various types of coronae.
    • 2004, Sara Pendergast, Tom Pendergast, Fashion, Costume, and Culture: Clothing, Headwear, Body Decorations, and Footwear Through the Ages, volume 1, Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group, →ISBN, page 183:
      Though men typically did not wear hats, they could wear a ceremonial form of headwear known as a corona, or crown. Like many areas of Roman dress, there were strict rules about wearing coronas.
  8. (biology) Any appendage of an organism that resembles a crown or corona.
    1. (zoology) An annular ciliated organ on the head of rotifers, used for locomotion and sweeping food into the mouth.
      • 1979, R. McNeill Alexander, “Rotifers”, in The Invertebrates, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 230:
        It has a ciliated corona at its anterior end and tapers to a narrow foot at the posterior end. The cilia of the corona are arranged more or less in two rings, with the mouth in the gap between them.
    2. (zoology) The main body of the test of an echinoid, consisting of ambulacral and interambulacral areas.
      • 1983, D. K. Richter, R. Sedat, “Brackish-Water Oncoids Composed of Blue-Green and Red Algae from a Pleistocene Terrace Near Corinth, Greece”, in Tadeusz M. Peryt, editor, Coated Grains, Berlin: Springer-Verlag, →ISBN, page 306:
        In coronae of the sea urchin Echinocyamus pusillus in the marine bed overlying the oncoid layer, an original Mg0.10–0.13-calcite was gradually replaced during diagenesis by a Mg0.03–0.05-calcite (Richter 1979).
    3. (zoology) The crown of a crinoid, consisting of a cuplike central body (theca) and a set of arms.
      • 1900, F. A. Bather, “The Crinoidea”, in E. Ray Lankester, editor, A Treatise on Zoology, Part III: The Echinoderma, London: Adam & Charles Black, page 99:
        A normal Crinoid (Fig. III.) consists of a “crown” (corona) attached by its dorsal (i.e. aboral) extremity to a “stem” (columna), which is fixed to the sea-floor or to some solid body by a “root” (radix).
    4. (botany) A paraperigonium; a ring or set of appendages of adaxial tissue arising from the corolla or the outer edge of the stamens, present in some plants (Narcissus, Passiflora etc.).
      • 1838, George Don, A General History of the Dichleamydeous Plants:
        All as in Stapelia; but the corolla is tuberculate, and the branches of the plant warted; and the outer corona of the corolla lacerately multifid.
    5. (virology) A fringe of large, bulbous surface projections of coronaviruses, formed by viral spike peplomers, creating an image reminiscent of the solar corona.
      • 1972 October, Lawrence S. Sturman, Kenneth K. Takemoto, “Enhanced Growth of a Murmne Coronavirus in Transformed Mouse Cells”, in Infection and Immunity[2], volume 6, number 4, page 501:
        Coronaviruses are medium-sized, enveloped, ribonucleic acid viruses which, in negatively stained preparations, appear round and bear a corona of irregular, petal-shaped surface projections (5).
  9. (anatomy) An upper or crownlike portion of certain parts of the body.
    1. A region of the skull located along the coronal suture, at the junction between the frontal bone and the two parietal bones.
      • 1865 April, John Thurnam, M.D., “On Synostosis of the Cranial Bones, especially the Parietals, regarded as a Race-character in one class of ancient British and in African Skulls”, in Natural History Review, number 18, page 265:
        This consists of a neckerchief passed twice round the head from the corona either to the back of the neck, when the resulting deformity (which is that of the Charlcombe skull) is designated annular by Dr. Gosse; or is carried under the chin and jaw, when it is termed bilobed by the same writer.*
      • 2013, Eric S. Hsu, Charles Argoff, Katherine E. Galluzzi, Raphael J. Leo, Andrew Dubin, “Head pain: Trigeminal neuralgia”, in Problem-Based Pain Management, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 27:
        The ophthalmic division supplies sensation from the eyebrows to the coronal suture. The sensory innervation stops at the corona, not at the hairline, and this fact may help one to differentiate a true abnormality from a factitious one, since people who are “faking” sensory loss more often lose sensation at the hairline.
    2. The crown; the external portion of the tooth, covered by enamel.
      • 1817, J. Fred. Blumenbach, “Of the Solids in general, and particularly of the Mucous Tela”, in John Elliotson, transl., The Institutions of Physiology, 2nd edition, London: Bensley and Son, page 12:
        17. The solids* are derived from the fluids. In the first rudiments of the gelatinous embryo, they gradually commence in their respective situations, and differ infinitely in their degrees✝ of cohesion, from the soft and almost pulpy medullary matter of the brain, to the vitreous substance of the corona of the teeth.
    3. The circumference of the base of the glans penis in human males.
      • 1907, C. H. Shutt, “A New Simple Technique for Circumcision and Some Advantages Gained in Genito-Urinary Work”, in The Medical Fortnightly, page 232:
        The first line of injection with a clean 1% solution of cocain, or 2% eucain is began, posterior to the ridge caused by the corona, on the dorsum.
  10. (medicine) A manifestation of secondary syphilis, consisting of papular lesions along the hairline, often bordering the scalp in the manner of a crown.
    Synonyms: corona veneris, crown of Venus
    • [1750?], Dr. [John] Arbuthnot, “The History of John Bull: Part II, Chapter III”, in The History of John Bull [by Dr. Arbuthnot]. And Poems on ſeveral Occasions by Dr. Jonathan Swift, with Several Miſcellaneous Pieces, by Dr. Swift and Mr. Pope, London: D. Midwinter, A. Tonson, page 60:
      Jack had a moſt ſcandalous tongue, and perſuaded Peg that all mankind, beſides himſelf, were pox'd by that ſcarlet-faced whore, †Signiora Bubonia. “As for his brother Lord Peter, the tokens were evident on him, blotches, ſcabs, and the corona. []
  11. (astronomy, geology) An oval-shaped astrogeological feature, present on both the planet Venus and Uranus's moon Miranda, probably formed by upwellings of warm material below the surface.
    • 2007, Gunter Faure, Introduction to Planetary Science: The Geological Perspective:
      The area density of impact craters on the surfaces of the coronas suggests that the episode of tidal heating occurred approximately one billion years ago.
  12. (mineralogy) A mineral zone, consisting of one or more minerals, which surrounds another mineral or lies at the interface of two minerals, typically in a radial arrangement; a reaction rim.
    • 2017, J. Theo Kloprogge, Robert Lavinsky, “Introduction: Geological Examples”, in Photo Atlas of Mineral Pseudomorphism, Amsterdam: Elsevier, →ISBN, page 67:
      Green hornblende is abundant at the rims of chlorite coronas in contact with amphibole-filled cracks, whereas it is minor (but not absent) in coronas in contact with chlorite-filled cracks.
Derived terms[edit]
Related terms[edit]
Descendants[edit]
  • Japanese: コロナ (korona)
Translations[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

A clipping of coronavirus.

Noun[edit]

corona (countable and uncountable, plural coronas)

  1. A coronavirus, especially SARS-CoV-2.
    • 1981 January, W. Arnold, M. Klein, J. B. Wang, W. A. K. Schmidt, H. J. Trampisch, “Coronavirus-associated Antibodies in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma and Infectious Mononucleosis”, in European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, volume 232, number 2, DOI:10.1007/BF00505035, page 175:
      Similar to the way in which EBV nuclear antigens can be identified by immunofluorescence microscopy in NPC tumor cells with the EBNA test, corona antigens can be demonstrated in the cytoplasm of tumor cells of the same patient. A possible non-specific reaction could be excluded by use of animal corona antisera.
    • 2016 April 16, Ben Berkhout, Formijn van Hemert, “On the biased nucleotide composition of the human coronavirus RNA genome”, in Virus Research[3], volume 202, DOI:10.1016/j.virusres.2014.11.031, PMID 25656063, page 46:
      Although this study was restricted to the human coronaviruses, these basic properties apply to all known animal and human coronas (results not shown).
    • 2020 May 6, Sankarshan Thakur, “A mildewed life: State of play: The migrant is trapped between the home and the world”, in The Telegraph[4]:
      He collapsed at the approach to his village. The villagers would not help, not admit him anywhere in. They were spooked, he may have been carrying corona. He died, and his remains were not let in either. Doctors were called, a test was done. The cadaver tested negative.
  2. A coronavirus disease, especially COVID-19.
    She caught corona last week.
    The recent surge of deaths due to corona reveals the shortcomings of our current healthcare system.
    • 2018 March–April, Adel F. Almutairi, Abdallah A. Adlan, Hanan H. Balkhy, Oraynab A. Abbas, Alexander M. Clark, ““It feels like I’m the dirtiest person in the world.”: Exploring the experiences of healthcare providers who survived MERS-CoV in Saudi Arabia”, in Journal of Infection and Public Health[5], volume 11, number 2, DOI:10.1016/j.jiph.2017.06.011, page 188:
      The MERS outbreak in the hospital created widespread fear and panic among healthcare providers and other employees. [] For example, participants’ traumatic experience is illustrated by the quote below: ¶ “Neglect is pain…prejudice is there, it hurts, also…unbelievable human ignorance. There was one person who is in administration here, who was scared to call me because she might get Corona over the phone”
    • 2020 May 8, Nazia Parveen, “Six-week-old baby believed to be England's youngest coronavirus victim”, in The Guardian[6]:
      His wife, Varda, told Geo News: “Tariq passed away in the blessed month of Ramadan in the line of duty. Even after he had developed symptoms of corona and isolated at home, he continued to do telephone clinics.”
Synonyms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Borrowed from Italian corona.

Noun[edit]

corona (plural coronas or corone)

  1. (poetry) A series of sonnets linked together in a particular manner.
    • 1889, Modern Language Notes, volume 4, page 307:
      A favorite and most attractive combination is that of the corona or series of sonnets, employed to frame or develop some one theme. A list of these corone is given by Biadene, who selects and publishes from among them a series of three by Petrarch, and the famous corona of the months by Folgore da San Gemignano.
    • 1997, Michael R. G. Spiller, The Sonnet Sequence: A Study of Its Strategies:
      But the poest of Siena, and particular the Academy of the Intronati, found the proper way of constructing coronas — since the ones mentioned above should really be called sequences ['catene'] rather than coronas.
    • 2000, Mary B. Moore, Desiring Voices: Women Sonneteers and Petrarchism:
      Wroth alludes to these contexts as the corona of sonnets that crowns the sequence opens: "In this strang labourinth how shall I turne?"
    • 2015, Michael G Brennan, The Ashgate Research Companion to The Sidneys, 1500–1700:
      Both sets of echoes derive from the poets' first poems, and since first poems in Petrarchan sequences set stylistic, tonal, and thematic expectations, Robert's double allusion to first poems should color readings of this, the first poem of his corona.

Etymology 4[edit]

From Spanish La Corona (literally The Crown), a brand name.

Noun[edit]

corona (plural coronas)

  1. A long, straight-sided cigar with a roundly blunt end.
    • 1977, Samuel Birnkrant, “Act I”, in Mama, Say ‘I Do’: A Comedy in Three Acts, Schulenburg, TX: I. E. Clark Publications, →ISBN, page 22:
      HOWARD: [Entering; cheerfully] Got your coronas, Mr. Goldman!
      GOLDMAN: [Glumly, taking the proffered cigars] Thanks, Howie. [Puts all but one in pocket.]
      HOWARD: Where's Ma?
      GOLDMAN: [Indicating with cigar] Inside the bedroom.

Anagrams[edit]


Aragonese[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin corona (crown).

Noun[edit]

corona f (plural coronas)

  1. crown

References[edit]


Catalan[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Occitan corona, from Latin corōna, from Ancient Greek κορώνη (korṓnē, garland, wreath).

Noun[edit]

corona f (plural corones)

  1. crown (decorative headgear)
  2. crown (imperial or regal power, or those who wield it)
  3. crown (various currencies)
Related terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

See the etymology of the main entry.

Verb[edit]

corona

  1. third-person singular present indicative form of coronar
  2. second-person singular imperative form of coronar

Further reading[edit]


Dutch[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˌkoːˈroː.naː/
  • Hyphenation: co‧ro‧na
  • Rhymes: -oːnaː

Etymology 1[edit]

Borrowed from Latin corōna, from Ancient Greek κορώνη (korṓnē).

Noun[edit]

corona f (plural corona's)

  1. (astronomy) corona
Related terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

A clipping of coronavirus.

Noun[edit]

corona f or n (uncountable)

  1. (informal, usually without definite article) coronavirus or coronavirus disease
Derived terms[edit]

Italian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin corōna, from Ancient Greek κορώνη (korṓnē, garland, wreath). Compare also cruna, probably from a derivative of the same Latin word.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

corona f (plural corone)

  1. crown (of a king, pope etc) (also of a tooth)
  2. crown (various units of currency)
  3. coronet
  4. wreath, chaplet
  5. (astronomy) corona (of a star etc)

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Verb[edit]

corona

  1. third-person singular present indicative of coronare
  2. second-person singular imperative of coronare

Anagrams[edit]


Latin[edit]

corōna (chaplet, wreath)

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from Ancient Greek κορώνη (korṓnē, garland, wreath), from Proto-Indo-European *(s)ker- (to turn, bend).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

corōna f (genitive corōnae); first declension

  1. garland, chaplet, laurel, or wreath; presented to athletes, the gods, or the dead
    • c. 200 BCE, Plautus, Menaechmi 3.1.16:
      sed quid egō videō? Menaechmus cum corōnā exit forās
      But why do I see Menaechmus here? He's coming out of doors with a chaplet on?
  2. crown
    • c. 200 BCE, Plautus, Menaechmi 5.5.38:
      at ego tē sacram corōnam surrupuisse Iovī sciō
      And I know that you stole the sacred crown of Jupiter.
  3. circle (of people), assembly

Declension[edit]

First-declension noun.

Case Singular Plural
Nominative corōna corōnae
Genitive corōnae corōnārum
Dative corōnae corōnīs
Accusative corōnam corōnās
Ablative corōnā corōnīs
Vocative corōna corōnae

Related terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Borrowings
Unsorted borrowings

References[edit]

  • corona in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • corona in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • corona in Charles du Fresne du Cange’s Glossarium Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (augmented edition, 1883–1887)
  • corona in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire Illustré Latin-Français, Hachette
  • Carl Meissner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[7], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • to elicit loud applause: clamores (coronae) facere, excitare
    • to sell a prisoner of war as a slave: aliquem sub corona vendere (B. G. 3. 16)
    • the free men are sold as slaves: libera corpora sub corona (hasta) veneunt (B. G. 3. 16. 4)
  • corona in The Perseus Project (1999) Perseus Encyclopedia[8]
  • corona in Harry Thurston Peck, editor (1898) Harper's Dictionary of Classical Antiquities, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • corona in William Smith et al., editor (1890) A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, London: William Wayte. G. E. Marindin

Leonese[edit]

Etymology[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Noun[edit]

corona f (plural coronas)

  1. crown

References[edit]


Old English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin corōna, from Ancient Greek κορώνη (korṓnē, garland, wreath).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

corōna m

  1. crown

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • corōna in Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller (1898) An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary

Old Occitan[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin corōna, from Ancient Greek κορώνη (korṓnē, garland, wreath).

Noun[edit]

corona f (oblique plural coronas, nominative singular corona, nominative plural coronas)

  1. crown

Descendants[edit]


Spanish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Spanish corona, from Latin corōna (crown), from Ancient Greek κορώνη (korṓnē, garland, wreath).

Noun[edit]

corona f (plural coronas)

  1. crown
  2. (heraldry) crown
  3. crown (various units of currency)
  4. (of a star) corona
  5. wreath; ring, circle
  6. sprocket; (bicycle sprockets) cassette
  7. (mechanics) larger part of a pair of gear wheels
    Synonym: rueda dentada
    Antonym: piñón
  8. washer
    Synonym: arandela
Derived terms[edit]
Related terms[edit]
Descendants[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

See the etymology of the main entry.

Verb[edit]

corona

  1. Informal second-person singular () affirmative imperative form of coronar.
  2. Formal second-person singular (usted) present indicative form of coronar.
  3. Third-person singular (él, ella, also used with usted?) present indicative form of coronar.

Further reading[edit]