dēls

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See also: dels

Latvian[edit]

Dēls ar māti

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Baltic *dē-, from Proto-Indo-European *dʰē-, *dʰeh₁(y)- ‎(to suckle, to nurse) (whence also Latvian dēle ‎(leech), q.v.); the original meaning was thus “one to nurse,” “suckling one,” “baby” (cf. Latin fellāre ‎(to nurse), filius ‎(son) < *fēlios < *dʰeh₁(y)-li-os). Cognates include Proto-Slavic *dětę (Russian дети ‎(déti, children)). The term dēls replaced an earlier *sūn(u)s, the original Indo-European word for “son” (cf. Lithuanian sūnùs, English son, Russian сын ‎(syn)). This is usually explained as the result of taboo: the ‘real’ word for “son” was avoided so as not to attract the attention of evil spirits. Note that the languages that lack a reflex of this original word (Latin, Celtic, Latvian) also lack the corresponding word for “daughter” (cf. Lithuanian duktė̃, Russian дочь ‎(doč’), German Tochter); this suggests that there may have been dialectal differences in Proto-Indo-European concerning words for children.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

(file)

Noun[edit]

dēls m (1st declension)

  1. son (a male child, in relation to his parents)
    dēls ar māti — a son with (his) mother
    jaunākais, vecākais dēls — youngest, oldest son
    pašu dēls — (one's) own son
    īstais dēls — real son
    vienīgais dēls — the only son
    brāļa, māsas dēls — nephew (lit. brother's, sister's son)
    dēls ļoti rūpējās par saviem vecākiem — the son takes great care of his parents
  2. (colloquial) son (a form of address used by an older person talking to a younger man)
    “Grobiņa tēv, vai tu domā, ka tava nauda nestāv droši?” Jānis jautāja; “... nu, dēls, par drošību, drošības dēļ nav ko runāt...” — “Father (of the) Grobiņš (= Mr Grobiņš), do you think that your money is not safe?” Jānis asked; “... well, son, there is nothing to say about, about security...”
  3. (poetic) son (a member of a people, group, etc.)
    Latvijas zemes dēls — a son of the land of Latvia (= a Latvian)
    dažādu tautu dēli un meitas — the sons and daughters of various nations

Declension[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “dēls”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7