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See also: discriminnâtion
Learned borrowing from Latin discrīminātiō, discrīminātiōnem, the action noun to discrīminō, discrīmināre (“distinguish”). Equivalent to discriminate + -ion. In English use from the 17th century.
discrimination (countable and uncountable, plural discriminations)
- (uncountable, countable) Discernment, the act of discriminating, discerning, distinguishing, noting or perceiving differences between things, with the intent to understand rightly and make correct decisions. [from early 17th c.]
- 1846, Henry Hollis, Christian Discrimination; Or, A Discourse on the Things in Religion which Differ, page 86:
- Have you felt the weight of the considerations which have been presented, in order to show the importance of discrimination on the subject of revealed truth?
- 1892, Ambrose Bierce, Black Beetles in Amber:
- An earthquake here rolls harmless through the land, And Thou art good because the chimneys stand— There templed cities sink into the sea, And damp survivors, howling as they flee, Skip to the hills and hold a celebration In honor of Thy wise discrimination.
- 1950, Lyle Vincent Jones, Analysis of Visual Discrimination Learning by Pigeons, page 14:·
- In place of a discrimination box a jumping apparatus was used, and apparently this required performance less foreign to the natural response repertory of the bird.
- 1989, Karen Ann Campbell, Mechanisms of Prey-tracking in the Echolocating Bat, page 71:
- The 'pretraining' for the two-choice discrimination involved a discrimination between angles differing by 19° (6° versus 25°) in which the smaller angle was marked with a 2 cm Plexiglas square that the bats had previously detected in a simple one-choice discrimination.
- (uncountable, countable, sometimes with "against") Differential treatment of an individual or group to their disadvantage; treatment or consideration based on class or category rather than individual merit; partiality; prejudice; bigotry. [from early 19th c.]
- Hyponyms: heterosexism, ageism, ableism, xenophobia, racism, sexism, classism, religionism, homophobia
- sexual or racial discrimination
- 1865 June 17, Lawrence, William Beach, “The Suffrage Question”, in National Anti-Slavery Standard, volume XXVI, number 6, New York, page 1, column 6:
- The same arguments, however, which have effectually in this State [Rhode Island] maintained the disfranchisement of naturalized citizens, may prevail in those cases in which the State Constitution makes the discrimination against colored persons, as long as those State Constitutions remain in force.
- 1931, Bandini Petroleum Co. v. Superior Court, 284 U.S. 8, 18–19
- The state, in the exercise of its general power to prescribe rules of evidence, may provide that proof of a particular fact, or of several facts taken collectively, shall be prima facie evidence of another fact when there is some rational connection between the fact proved and the ultimate fact presumed. The legislative presumption is invalid when it is entirely arbitrary, or creates an invidious discrimination, or operates to deprive a party of a reasonable opportunity to present the pertinent facts in his defense.
- 1939, United States. U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on interstate commerce, Freight-rate Discriminations, page 49:
- However, is it not true that within the preferred or official territory there are certain discriminations? For instance, are there not certain States in New England that suffer from certain discriminations, in comparison with other States in that official territory?
- 1963, King, Jr., Martin Luther, “Transformed Nonconformist”, in Strength to Love, New York: Pocket Books, published 1964, →OCLC, page 13:
- Many sincere white people in the South privately oppose segregation and discrimination, but they are apprehensive lest they be publicly condemned.
- 2001, He, Xiaopei, “Chinese Queer (Tongzhi) Women Organizing in the 1990s”, in Ping-Chun Hsiung; Maria Jaschok; Cecilia Milwertz; Red Chan, editors, Chinese Women Organizing: Cadres, Feminists, Muslims, Queers, Berg, →ISBN, →LCCN, →OCLC, page 41:
- Due to severe and pervasive discrimination, people dared not be open about their homosexuality, and because no one would be open, social prejudice and discrimination became even stronger.
- 2014, Carter, Jimmy, “The Bible and Gender Equality”, in A Call to Action: Women, Religion, Violence, and Power, Simon & Schuster, →ISBN, →OCLC, page 23:
- The four Gospels were written by men, but they never report any instance of Jesus’ condoning sexual discrimination or the implied subservience or inferiority of women.
- 2021, Rosita Fibbi, Arnfinn H. Midtbøen, Patrick Simon, Migration and Discrimination:
- The book also presents empirical results from studies of discrimination across the world to show the magnitude of the problem and the difficulties of comparison across national borders.
- (uncountable) The quality of being discriminating; acute discernment, especially in matters of good taste. [from 18th c.]
- 1863, Alfred Gladstone, The Man of the Hour: A Tale of Real Life - Volume 2, page 128:
- You are a man of discrimination,” said Qunk, “I admire that girl a little myself, and, entre nous, I think that I'm a bit of a favourite in that quarter.”
- 1881, C. F. Hull, Shadows of good things to come; or, the gospel in Ruth, page 42:
- Take heed, then, lest, while you plume yourselves on your superior wisdom and discrimination, the Great Captain does not arraign you before his court-martial on the charge of blood-guiltiness.
- 1963, David Paton Cuthbertson, Progress in Nutrition and Allied Sciences, page 238:
- These differences amount to a discrimination by the animal in favour of calcium and against strontium and barium.
- 1996, Eknath Easwaran, Seeing with the Eyes of Love, page 106:
- In the vocabulary of Madison Avenue, the man of discrimination is one who knows a fine set of luggage when he sees it.
- 2017, Keren Arbel, Early Buddhist Meditation, page 106:
- Furthermore, holding the view that the jhānas are in conflict with discrimination and wisdom, one might argue that this quality cannot be developed and sustained when one attains the jhānas.
- 2018, Jane Forsey, On Taste: Aesthetic Exchanges, page viii:
- If taste is, in Sibleyan terms, an ability involving perceptiveness, sensitivity, discrimination and appreciation, this suggests that it should be directed towards a certain set of objects, and that there is clear room for error and critical debate: about which objects—and which responses—are in fact correct, and which provide evidence of the presence of tasteful discrimination.
- 2019, Rick South, The Odes of God:
- Among those who are purified by their good deeds, there are four kinds of men who worship me: the world-weary, the seeker for knowledge, the seeker for happiness and the man of spiritual discrimination. The man of discrimination is the highest of these.
- (countable, obsolete) That which discriminates; a distinguishing mark, a characteristic.
- 1775, Samuel Johnson, A Journey to the Western Islands of Scotland - Volume 1, page 239:
- He who has not made the experiment, or who is not accustomed to require rigorous accuracy from himself, will scarcely believe how much a few hours take from certainty of knowledge, and distinctness of imagery; how the succession of objects will be broken, how separate parts will be confused, and how many particular features and discriminations will be compressed and conglobated into one gross and general idea.
- 1789, William Coxe, “Letter 41”, in Travels in Switzerland: In a Series of Letters to William Melmoth, Esq. from William Coxe, […] In Three Volumes […] , page 52:
- But even if this difference should be still greater, it could never be admitted as forming a specific distinction. For the horns not only differ in individuals of the same species, but in the same individuals at different ages. If we were to attempt to arrange animals solely by their horns, the discriminations would be as endless as uncertain.
- 1796, Sir Uvedale Price, An Essay on the Picturesque, page 236:
- These seem to me their most obvious and striking causes, and certainly sufficient to distinguish them from each other: but let the most acute metaphysician, place in one point of view whatever may, in any way, mark the nice boundaries which separate them from each other, and then let his discriminations be compared, for clear, and strongly marked difference and opposition, with those I have stated to exist between the beautiful, and the picturesque; and if his discriminations are not more clear, and more strongly marked, but on the contrary much less so, why should they have a power, which is denied to mine?
- 1800, Marcus Terentius Varro, The Three Books of M. Terentius Varro Concerning Agriculture, page 50:
- The great discriminations of land are three, and it concerns us to know whether it is poor, or rich, or in a middle state.
the act of making a distinction, noting differences between things
distinct treatment of an individual or group to their disadvantage
- “discrimination”, in Collins English Dictionary.
- “discrimination, n.”, in Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press, 2019–2022.
- discrimination at OneLook Dictionary Search
- “discrimination”, in Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, Springfield, Mass.: Merriam-Webster, 1996–present.
- “discrimination” in TheFreeDictionary.com, Huntingdon Valley, Pa.: Farlex, Inc., 2003–2023.
- “discrimination”, in The Century Dictionary […], New York, N.Y.: The Century Co., 1911, →OCLC.
Borrowed from Latin discrimīnātiōnem. Synchronically, from discriminer + -ation.
discrimination f (plural discriminations)
- “discrimination”, in Trésor de la langue française informatisé [Digitized Treasury of the French Language], 2012.
- English terms derived from Proto-Indo-European
- English terms derived from the Proto-Indo-European root *krey-
- English terms borrowed from Latin
- English learned borrowings from Latin
- English terms derived from Latin
- English terms suffixed with -ion
- English 5-syllable words
- English terms with IPA pronunciation
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- Rhymes:English/eɪʃən/5 syllables
- English lemmas
- English nouns
- English uncountable nouns
- English countable nouns
- English terms with quotations
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- English terms with obsolete senses
- French terms derived from Proto-Indo-European
- French terms derived from the Proto-Indo-European root *krey-
- French terms borrowed from Latin
- French terms derived from Latin
- French terms suffixed with -ation
- French 5-syllable words
- French terms with IPA pronunciation
- French terms with audio links
- French lemmas
- French nouns
- French countable nouns
- French feminine nouns
- French terms with usage examples