du

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Abinomn[edit]

Noun[edit]

du

  1. name

Aiwoo[edit]

Determiner[edit]

du

  1. all

References[edit]


Alemannic German[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

du

  1. thou, you

Declension[edit]


Amanab[edit]

Noun[edit]

du

  1. a kind of bird

Bambara[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

du

  1. household

References[edit]


Basque[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

du

  1. Third-person singular (hark), taking third-person singular (hura) as direct object, present indicative form of izan.

Usage notes[edit]

Linguistically, this verb form can be seen as belonging to the reconstructed citation form edun instead of izan.


Breton[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Brythonic *duβ, from Proto-Celtic *dubus, from Proto-Indo-European *dʰewbʰ-.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

du

  1. black
  2. swollen
  3. starved

Mutation[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Noun[edit]

du m

  1. black

Mutation[edit]

Verb[edit]

du

Mutation[edit]

See also[edit]

Colors in Breton · livioù (layout · text)
     gwenn      louet      du
             ruz              orañjez, melen-ruz; gell              melen
                          gwer, glas             
             cyan                           glas
                          magenta; glasruz              roz

Burushaski[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

du (plural duwants)

  1. yew

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Sadaf Munshi (2015), “Word Lists”, in Burushaski Language Documentation Project[1].


Cimbrian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle High German du, from Old High German , from Proto-West Germanic *þū, from Proto-Germanic *þū. Cognate with German du, archaic English thou (modern dialectal tha).

Pronoun[edit]

du

  1. (Luserna, Sette Comuni) you (thou, singular familiar)
    Bobrall du geast, gedenkhte ber du pist.Wherever you go, remember who you are.

Inflection[edit]

Sette Comuni:

Luserna:

Personal pronouns
singular plural
1st person i biar
2nd person du iar
3rd person er, si, 'z se

References[edit]

  • “du” in Martalar, Umberto Martello; Bellotto, Alfonso (1974) Dizionario della lingua Cimbra dei Sette Communi vicentini, 1st edition, Roana, Italy: Instituto di Cultura Cimbra A. Dal Pozzo
  • Patuzzi, Umberto, ed., (2013) Luserna / Lusérn: Le nostre parole / Ünsarne börtar / Unsere Wörter [Our Words], Luserna, Italy: Comitato unitario delle isole linguistiche storiche germaniche in Italia / Einheitskomitee der historischen deutschen Sprachinseln in Italien

Cornish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Brythonic *duβ, from Proto-Celtic *dubus, from Proto-Indo-European *dʰewbʰ-.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (Revived Middle Cornish) IPA(key): [dyː]
  • (Revived Late Cornish) IPA(key): [diˑʊ]

Adjective[edit]

du

  1. black

Mutation[edit]

See also[edit]

Colors in Cornish · liwyow (layout · text)
     gwynn      loos, glas      du
             rudh; kogh              rudhvelyn; gell, gorm              melyn
                          gwyrdh, glas             
                                       glas
             glasrudh, purpur              majenta; purpur, glasrudh              gwynnrudh, kigliw

Danish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Danish thu, from Old Norse þú, from Proto-Germanic *þū, from Proto-Indo-European *túh₂ (you). Cognate with English thou, Latin , Sanskrit त्वम् (tvam), Avestan 𐬙𐬏𐬨(tūm),‎ Russian ты (ty).

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

du (objective dig)

  1. thou, you (2nd person singular subject pronoun, informal)
See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Danish dughæ, from Old Norse duga, from Proto-Germanic *duganą (to be useful), cognate with Swedish duga, German taugen, Gothic 𐌳𐌿𐌲𐌰𐌽 (dugan).

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

du (imperative du, present dur or duer, past duede, past participle duet)

  1. be good
  2. be fit
Inflection[edit]

Dena'ina[edit]

Particle[edit]

du

  1. interrogative particle (placed at the end of the sentence to make a question)

Dutch[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • dou (obsolete, Hollandic)

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Dutch du, from Old Dutch thū, from Proto-West Germanic *þū, from Proto-Germanic *þū, from Proto-Indo-European *túh₂.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /dy/
  • Hyphenation: du
  • Rhymes: -y

Pronoun[edit]

du

  1. (obsolete or dialectal) Second-person singular informal pronoun; thou
    • 1620, Jacob Cats, Velt-teycken, alle eerbare jonge lieden toegeeygent
      Sy roept, du bist een slaef, in mijne dienst gebonden
      She calls, thou art a slave, bound to my service
    • 1625, Joost van den Vondel, Wiech-liedt
      Soo leyt dyn memmetje dy in dyn wiechje te rust.
      So thy mama lays thee to rest in thy cradle.

Usage notes[edit]

  • Du was already falling out of general use in early modern Dutch. It was still relatively common in the oblique cases, in vocatives or close to vocative appositions and when indicating contempt.
  • The corresponding verbal ending was -st. The present form of zijn was bist, for hebben the present forms hebst and hest were in use. When the nominative directly followed the verb, contraction usually occurred: -stu; bistu, hebstu.

Inflection[edit]


Elfdalian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse þú, from Proto-Germanic *þū, from Proto-Indo-European *túh₂. Cognate with Swedish du.

Pronoun[edit]

du

  1. you (singular), thou

Esperanto[edit]

Esperanto numbers (edit)
20
 ←  1 2 3  → 
    Cardinal: du
    Ordinal: dua
    Adverbial: due
    Multiplier: duobla, duopa
    Fractional: duona, duono

Etymology[edit]

From Latin duo, from Proto-Indo-European *dwóh₁.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /du/
  • (file)

Numeral[edit]

du

  1. two (2)

Derived terms[edit]


French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old French del. The expected modern form would be *deau, but it underwent stronger contraction.

Pronunciation[edit]

Contraction[edit]

du (feminine singular de la, plural des)

  1. Contraction of de + le (of the)
  2. Forms the partitive article.
    Il mange du pain.He eats bread. / He eats some bread.

Usage notes[edit]

  • The partitive article is used with uncountable nouns instead of the indefinite article (which is only used with countable nouns). English and most other European languages do not use any article in such cases.
  • Like the indefinite article, the partitive article becomes simple de with grammatical objects in negated sentences: Il ne mange pas de pain. (He doesn’t eat bread.)
  • After the actual preposition de (of, from), the partitive article is deleted. So one can never say *de du or *de de la.

Further reading[edit]


Gaikundi[edit]

Noun[edit]

du

  1. man

Further reading[edit]


German[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle High German du, duo, , from Old High German (akin to Old Saxon thū and English thou), itself from Proto-West Germanic *þū, from Proto-Germanic *þū, from Proto-Indo-European *túh₂.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (unstressed, standard) IPA(key): /du/
  • (unstressed, colloquial) IPA(key): /də/
  • After the second person singular verb ending -st, the /d/ is generally lost when the pronoun is unstressed. Thus hast du is pronounced [ˈhast‿u] even in purposefully enunciated speech.
  • In colloquial speech, chiefly of northern and central Germany, the /d/ can be lost after any preceding coronal. Thus wenn du may be pronounced [ˈvɛn‿u] or [ˈvɛn‿ə].

Pronoun[edit]

du

  1. you (thou, singular familiar)

Usage notes[edit]

  • Du is the informal second person pronoun. In formal speech, the third person plural Sie (always capitalised) is used instead.
  • A general rule of thumb is that du is used to address one's friends, relatives, and those under about 16 years of age. Du is always used to address children and non-human beings.
  • Usage also depends on the setting: two unacquainted, middle-aged persons are likely to use du when they meet at social gatherings, but much less so when they happen on each other in the street. People under 30 often use du among each other, but they still use Sie when one of them is at work, e.g. in a shop (some cafés and most pubs are an exception).
  • There is also a great deal of (often subtle) regional variation throughout the German-speaking world.

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • du” in Duden online
  • du” in Digitales Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache

Gothic[edit]

Romanization[edit]

du

  1. Romanization of 𐌳𐌿

Hunsrik[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle High German and Old High German (akin to Old Saxon thū and English thou), itself from Proto-Germanic *þū, from Proto-Indo-European *túh₂.

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

du

  1. thou, you
    Du bist aarich scheen.
    You are so beautiful.

Inflection[edit]

Further reading[edit]


Ido[edit]

Ido numbers (edit)
20
 ←  1 2 3  → 
    Cardinal: du
    Ordinal: duesma
    Adverbial: dufoye
    Multiplier: duopla
    Fractional: duima

Etymology[edit]

From Esperanto du, from French deux, Spanish dos, Italian due, ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *dwóh₁.

Numeral[edit]

du

  1. two (2)

Kalasha[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Sanskrit द्व (dva), from Proto-Indo-European *dwóh₁. Compare Hindi दो (do), Bhojpuri दू (), Konkani दोन (don).

Numeral[edit]

du

  1. two; 2

Lithuanian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Baltic *duwō, from Proto-Indo-European *dwóh₁. Compare Latvian divi. Cognate to Latin duo.

Pronunciation[edit]

Numeral[edit]

Lithuanian cardinal numbers
 <  1 2 3  > 
    Cardinal : du
    Ordinal : antras

 m (feminine dvì)

  1. two (2)

Declension[edit]


Lower Sorbian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *jьdǫ (first-person singular) and *jьdǫtь (third-person plural), inflected forms of *jьti.

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

du

  1. inflection of hyś:
    1. first-person singular present
    2. third-person plural present

Synonyms[edit]

  • (first-person singular): źom

Luxembourgish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *þū.

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

du

  1. second-person singular, informal, nominative: you, thou
    Wéi al bass du?How old are you?

Declension[edit]


Mandarin[edit]

Romanization[edit]

du

  1. Nonstandard spelling of .
  2. Nonstandard spelling of .
  3. Nonstandard spelling of .
  4. Nonstandard spelling of .

Usage notes[edit]

  • English transcriptions of Mandarin speech often fail to distinguish between the critical tonal differences employed in the Mandarin language, using words such as this one without the appropriate indication of tone.

Middle Dutch[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Dutch thū, from Proto-West Germanic *þū, from Proto-Germanic *þū.

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

du

  1. thou, you (singular, informal)
    Synonym: gi

Usage notes[edit]

This pronoun began to be replaced by gi in formal address during the Middle Dutch period, and eventually fell out of use altogether.

Inflection[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Dutch: (obsolete) du, dou, douw
  • Limburgish: doe

Further reading[edit]

  • du”, in Vroegmiddelnederlands Woordenboek, 2000
  • Verwijs, E.; Verdam, J. (1885–1929), “du”, in Middelnederlandsch Woordenboek, The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, →ISBN

Middle English[edit]

Adjective[edit]

du

  1. Alternative form of dewe (due)

Middle Low German[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Saxon thū, from Proto-Germanic *þū.

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

  1. thou, you (second person singular nominative)

Declension[edit]

Descendants[edit]


Mòcheno[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle High German du, from Old High German , from Proto-West Germanic *þū, from Proto-Germanic *þū. Cognate with German du, archaic English thou (modern dialectal tha).

Pronoun[edit]

du

  1. you (thou, singular familiar)

Inflection[edit]

Personal pronouns
singular plural
1st person i biar
2nd person du ir
3rd person er, si, s sei

References[edit]


Norman[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin dux, ducem.

Noun[edit]

du m

  1. duke

Related terms[edit]


North Frisian[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Frisian dwā, from Proto-Germanic *dōną. Cognates include West Frisian dwaan, English do.

Verb[edit]

du

  1. (Föhr-Amrum) to do
  2. (Föhr-Amrum) to give

Conjugation[edit]



Northern Kurdish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Iranian *dwáH (compare Persian دو(do), Pashto دوه(dwa), Avestan 𐬛𐬎𐬎𐬀(duua)), from Proto-Indo-Iranian *dwáH (compare Sanskrit द्व (dvá), Marathi दोन (don), Hindi दो (do)/Urdu دو(do), Punjabi ਦੋ (do)), from Proto-Indo-European *dwóh₁ (compare Russian два (dva), Lithuanian du, Greek δύο (dýo), Spanish dos, English two).

Numeral[edit]

Central Kurdish دوو()

du

  1. two (2)

Northern Sami[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (Kautokeino) IPA(key): /ˈtuː/

Pronoun[edit]

  1. accusative/genitive of don

Norwegian Bokmål[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse þú (you), from Proto-Germanic *þū (you), from Proto-Indo-European *túh₂ (you).

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

du (objective case deg)

  1. thou, you (second person, singular)

Derived terms[edit]

  • due (to say 'you' to someone)

Verb[edit]

du

  1. imperative of due

References[edit]

See also[edit]


Norwegian Nynorsk[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse þú, from Proto-Germanic *þū, from Proto-Indo-European *túh₂. Akin to English thou.

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

du (objective case deg)

  1. you, thou (second person, singular)

References[edit]

See also[edit]



Obokuitai[edit]

Noun[edit]

du

  1. bird

Further reading[edit]

Bill Palmer, The Languages and Linguistics of the New Guinea Area (→ISBN, 2017), page 531, table 95, Comparative basic vocabulary in Lakes Plain Languages


Old French[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Contraction[edit]

du

  1. contraction of de + le (of the)

Old High German[edit]

one drawing of the inscription on the Bülach fibula

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-West Germanic *þū, from Proto-Germanic *þū, whence also Old English þū, Old Norse þú, and ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *túh₂. Perhaps the earliest attestation of the pronoun is the inscription on the Bülach fibula, which may show ᛞᚢ (du) already differentiated from other Germanic languages’ þu.

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

  1. thou, you (second-person singular pronoun)
    • 6th-7th century, inscription on the Bülach fibula:
      ᚠᚱᛁᚠᚱᛁᛞᛁᛚ / ᛞᚢ / ...
      frifridil / du / []
      [my] beloved, you / []

Usage notes[edit]

Some speakers of Old High German appear to have contrasted the "polite" singular (plural forms) with the regular, informal singular (singular forms), as in New High German (Modern German) Sie versus du. This distinction is however not well-attested, and may have been regional, genre-dependent, or only in Late Old High German.

Inflection[edit]

Old High German personal pronouns
Number Person Gender Nominative Genitive Dative Accusative
Singular First ih
(ihha, ihcha)
mīn mir mih
Second dīn dir dih
Third Masculine er (her) (sīn) imu, imo inan, in
Feminine siu; , si ira (iru, iro) iru, iro sia
Neuter iz es, is imu, imo iz
Plural First wir unsēr uns unsih
Second ir iuwēr iu iuwih
Third Masculine sie iro im, in sie
Feminine sio iro im, in sio
Neuter siu iro im, in siu
Polite form Second   ir iuwēr iu iuwih

Descendants[edit]

  • Middle High German: du
    • Alemannic German: du
      Swabian: dau, d
    • Bavarian:
      Cimbrian: du
      Mòcheno: du
    • Central Franconian: du, dou
      Hunsrik: du
      Kölsch: do
    • German: du
    • Luxembourgish: du
    • Rhine Franconian:
      Palatine German: du
      Pennsylvania German: du
    • Yiddish: דו(du)

References[edit]

  • Heinz Klingenberg, Runenfibel von Bülach, Kanton Zürich. Liebesinschrift aus alemannischer Frühzeit, in the Alemannisches Jahrbuch (1973/75), page 308
  • Heinz Klingenberg, Die Runeninschrift aus Bülach, in Helvetia archaeologica, volume 7 (1976), pages 116–121
  • Stephan Opitz, Südgermanische Runeninschriften im älteren Futhark aus der Merowingerzeit (Freiburg im Breisgau, 1977)

Old Irish[edit]

Preposition[edit]

du

  1. Alternative form of do

Mutation[edit]

Old Irish mutation
Radical Lenition Nasalization
du du
pronounced with /ð(ʲ)-/
ndu
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Pennsylvania German[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Compare German du, English thou, Swedish du.

Pronoun[edit]

du

  1. you

Declension[edit]


Pite Sami[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

du

  1. those

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Joshua Wilbur (2014) A grammar of Pite Saami, Berlin: Language Science Press

Romagnol[edit]

Romagnol numbers (edit)
20
 ←  1 2 3  → 
    Cardinal: du
    Ordinal: șgónd
    Multiplier: dópi
    Fractional: mëẓ

Etymology[edit]

From Latin dŭo (two).

Pronunciation[edit]

Numeral[edit]

du (feminine )

  1. two

References[edit]

  • Masotti, Adelmo (1999) Vocabolario Romagnolo Italiano (in Italian), Zanichelli, pages 189, 194

Romanian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

du

  1. second-person singular imperative of duce
    Du-te acasă.
    Go home.

Saterland Frisian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Frisian thū, from Proto-West Germanic *þū.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /du/
  • Hyphenation: du
  • Rhymes: -u

Pronoun[edit]

du (oblique die)

  1. thou, you

Usage notes[edit]

  • du is at times omitted when used with a verb.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Marron C. Fort (2015), “du”, in Saterfriesisches Wörterbuch mit einer phonologischen und grammatischen Übersicht, Buske, →ISBN

Scots[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

du (objective case dee, vocative dee, possessive determiner dines)

  1. Orkney, Shetland form of thou (thou)

Sranan Tongo[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From English do.

Verb[edit]

du

  1. to do

Noun[edit]

du

  1. deed, action
  2. (archaic) dance performance

Sumerian[edit]

Romanization[edit]

du

  1. Romanization of 𒁺 (du)

Swedish[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Swedish þū, from Old Norse þú, from Proto-Germanic *þū, from Proto-Indo-European *túh₂.

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

du

  1. you (familiar sg.)
  2. thou

Usage notes[edit]

While du is the traditionally familiar mode of address, it is since the early '70s the standard in almost all circumstances, possibly capitalized in formal communications. This was the result of the so-called du-reformen.

Recently, use of the second-person plural pronoun ni as a less familiar (and thus more formal) pronoun has appeared to some extent, but mainly amongst shopkeepers towards the customers.

The same pronoun ni has also been used historically as a formal way of address, but its use has (in particular in Sweden, not so much in Swedish-speaking parts of Finland) been restricted to addressing people of lower social status, whereby a plethora of different constructions were employed as to avoid the issue of pronouns whatsoever. See also the article about T-V distinction in Wikipedia.

Declension[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Tlingit[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

du

  1. his/her

See also[edit]


Venetian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Compare Italian due

Numeral[edit]

du m

  1. two

Synonyms[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Sino-Vietnamese word from /.

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

du

  1. (only in compounds) to play, amuse oneself, walk, stroll; to travel; to swim [1]
Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Dinh-hoa Nguyen (1995), “du”, in NTC's Vietnamese–English Dictionary, →ISBN, page 128

Welsh[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Brythonic *duβ, from Proto-Celtic *dubus, from Proto-Indo-European *dʰewbʰ-.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

du (feminine singular du, plural duon, equative dued, comparative duach, superlative duaf)

  1. black
    Mae ganddo fo fwstash du.
    He has a black mustache

Related terms[edit]

Mutation[edit]

Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal aspirate
du ddu nu unchanged
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

See also[edit]

Colors in Welsh · lliwiau (layout · text)
     gwyn      llwyd      du
             coch; rhudd              oren, melyngoch; brown              melyn; melynwyn
             gwyrdd leim              gwyrdd             
             gwyrddlas; glaswyrdd              asur, gwynlas              glas
             fioled; indigo              majenta; porffor              pinc

White Hmong[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

du

  1. smooth

Yoruba[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

  1. to scramble for, to compete
    wọ́n du oúnjẹThey scrambled for food
Derived terms[edit]
Usage notes[edit]
  • du before a direct object

Etymology 2[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

du

  1. (Lagos, intransitive) to run, to sprint
    Synonym:
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

  1. (intransitive, of a person or animal) to bleed
    Synonyms: dújẹ̀, ṣẹ̀jẹ̀
Derived terms[edit]
  • ìdú (the act of bleeding)

Etymology 4[edit]

Cognate with Igala

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

  1. to be black, to be dark
    Antonym: fun
    ó láwọ̀Her skin is dark
Derived terms[edit]