du

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Contents

Alemannic German[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

du

  1. thou, you

Declension[edit]


Amanab[edit]

Noun[edit]

du

  1. a kind of bird

Breton[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Brythonic *duβ, from Proto-Celtic *dubus, from Proto-Indo-European *dʰewbʰ-.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

du

  1. black
  2. swollen
  3. starved

Noun[edit]

du m

  1. black

Mutation[edit]


Cornish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Brythonic *duβ, from Proto-Celtic *dubus, from Proto-Indo-European *dʰewbʰ-.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (Revived Middle Cornish) IPA(key): [dyː]
  • (Revived Late Cornish) IPA(key): [diˑʊ]

Adjective[edit]

du

  1. black

Mutation[edit]


Danish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Danish thu, from Old Norse þú, from Proto-Germanic *þū, from Proto-Indo-European *túh₂ (you).

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

du (objective dig)

  1. (personal) thou, you (2nd person singular subject pronoun, informal)
See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Danish dughæ, from Old Norse duga.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /duː/, [d̥uːˀ]

Verb[edit]

du (imperative du, present dur or duer, past duede, past participle duet)

  1. be good
  2. be fit

Dena'ina[edit]

Particle[edit]

du

  1. interrogative particle (placed at the end of the sentence to make a question)

Dutch[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Dutch du, from Old Dutch thū, from Proto-Germanic *þū, from Proto-Indo-European *túh₂.

Pronoun[edit]

du

  1. (obsolete or dialectal) Second-person singular, subjective; thou.

Elfdalian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse þú, from Proto-Germanic *þū, from Proto-Indo-European *túh₂. Cognate with Swedish du.

Pronoun[edit]

du

  1. you (singular), thou

Esperanto[edit]

Esperanto cardinal numbers
 <  1 2 3  > 
    Cardinal : du
    Ordinal : dua
    Adverbial : due
    Multiplier : duobla
    Fractional : duona

Etymology[edit]

From Latin duo, from Proto-Indo-European *dwóh₁.

Pronunciation[edit]

Numeral[edit]

du

  1. (cardinal) two (2)

Derived terms[edit]


French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old French del.

Pronunciation[edit]

Contraction[edit]

du

  1. Contraction of de + le (of the)
  2. Contraction of de + le; forms the partitive article

Usage notes[edit]

  • The partitive article signifies "some", but it often is not translated in English, Dutch, or German.

Gaikundi[edit]

Noun[edit]

du

  1. man

Further reading[edit]


German[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old High German du (akin to Old Saxon thu and English thou), itself from Proto-Germanic *þū, from Proto-Indo-European *túh₂.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (standard, generally) IPA(key): /duː/
  • (colloquially in unstressed position) IPA(key): /də/
  • In colloquial speech in Germany, the /d/ can assimilate to a preceding coronal when the word is unstressed. This always happens after the second person singular verb ending, except in purposefully enunciated speech.

Pronoun[edit]

du

  1. thou, you (singular familiar)

Usage notes[edit]

  • Du is the informal second person pronoun. In polite language, the third person plural Sie (always capitalised) is used.
  • As a simplified rule one can say that du is used among friends, relatives, and young people up to 25~30 years. Du is always used to address children up to 14~16 years, as well as gods, animals, and other creatures.
  • Usage also depends a lot on the setting in which people meet: two unacquainted, middle-aged persons are quite likely to use du when they meet, for example, in a pub, but much less so when they meet in the street.
  • Usage varies in different parts of the German-speaking world. For example, strangers may call each other du more readily in Berlin than in Munich.

Inflection[edit]

1Often capitalized, especially in letters

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • du in Duden online

Gothic[edit]

Romanization[edit]

du

  1. Romanization of 𐌳𐌿

Hunsrik[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old High German du (akin to Old Saxon thu and English thou), itself from Proto-Germanic *þū, from Proto-Indo-European *túh₂.

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

du

  1. thou, you
    Du bist aarich scheen.
    You are so beautiful.

Inflection[edit]

Further reading[edit]


Ido[edit]

Ido cardinal numbers
 <  1 2 3  > 
    Cardinal : du
    Ordinal : duesma
    Adverbial : dufoye
    Multiplier : duopla
    Fractional : duima
Ido Wikipedia article on du

Etymology[edit]

From Esperanto du, from French deux, Spanish dos, Italian due, ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *dwóh₁.

Numeral[edit]

du

  1. (cardinal) two (2)

Interlingue[edit]

Numeral[edit]

du

  1. two

Kalasha[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Sanskrit द्व (dva), from Proto-Indo-European *dwóh₁. Compare Hindi दो (do), Bhojpuri दू (), Konkani दोन (don).

Numeral[edit]

du

  1. (cardinal) two; 2

Kurdish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Iranian *duu̯a (compare Persian دو (do), Pashto دوه (dwa), Avestan 𐬛𐬎𐬎𐬀 (duua)), from Proto-Indo-Iranian (compare Sanskrit द्व (dvá), Marathi दोन (don), Hindi दो (do)/Urdu دو (do), Punjabi ਦੋ ()), from Proto-Indo-European *dwóh₁ (compare Russian два (dva), Lithuanian du, Greek δύο (dýo), Spanish dos, English two).

Numeral[edit]

du

  1. (cardinal) two (2)

Lithuanian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Baltic *duwō, from Proto-Indo-European *dwóh₁. Compare Latvian divi. Cognate to Latin duo.

Numeral[edit]

du m (feminine dvi)

  1. (cardinal) two (2)

Declension[edit]


Lojban[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Derived from dunli.

Pronunciation[edit]

Cmavo[edit]

du (rafsi dub or du'o)

  1. (identity selbri) x1 equals x2, x3, x4, ...
    li pa su'i vo du li mu
    one plus four equals five

See also[edit]


Lower Sorbian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *jьdǫ (first-person singular) and *jьdǫtь (third-person plural), inflected forms of *jьti.

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

du

  1. first-person singular present of hyś
  2. third-person plural present of hyś

Synonyms[edit]

  • (first-person singular): źom

Luxembourgish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *þū.

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

du

  1. second-person singular, informal, nominative: you, thou
    Wéi al bass du?How old are you?

Declension[edit]


Mandarin[edit]

Romanization[edit]

du

  1. Nonstandard spelling of .
  2. Nonstandard spelling of .
  3. Nonstandard spelling of .
  4. Nonstandard spelling of .

Usage notes[edit]

  • English transcriptions of Mandarin speech often fail to distinguish between the critical tonal differences employed in the Mandarin language, using words such as this one without the appropriate indication of tone.

Middle Dutch[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Dutch thū, from Proto-Germanic *þū.

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

du

  1. thou, you (singular, informal)
    Synonyms: gi

Usage notes[edit]

This pronoun began to be replaced by gi in formal address during the Middle Dutch period, and eventually fell out of use altogether.

Inflection[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Limburgish: doe

Further reading[edit]

  • du”, in Vroegmiddelnederlands Woordenboek, 2000
  • du”, in Middelnederlandsch Woordenboek, 1929

Middle Low German[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Saxon thū, from Proto-Germanic *þū.

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

  1. thou, you (second person singular nominative)

Declension[edit]


Descendants[edit]


Norman[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin dux, ducem.

Noun[edit]

du m

  1. duke

Related terms[edit]


North Frisian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *dōną. Cognates include Mooring North Frisian düünj and West Frisian dwaan.

Verb[edit]

du

  1. (Föhr-Amrum) to do
  2. (Föhr-Amrum) to give

Conjugation[edit]



Northern Sami[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (Kautokeino) IPA(key): /ˈtuː/

Pronoun[edit]

  1. accusative and genitive of don

Norwegian Bokmål[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse þú, from Proto-Germanic *þū, from Proto-Indo-European *túh₂.

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

du (objective case deg)

  1. thou, you (second person, singular)

References[edit]

See also[edit]


Norwegian Nynorsk[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse þú, from Proto-Germanic *þū, from Proto-Indo-European *túh₂.

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

du (objective case deg)

  1. thou, you (second person, singular)

References[edit]

See also[edit]


Novial[edit]

Novial cardinal numbers
 <  1 2 3  > 
    Cardinal : du
    Ordinal : duesmi

Numeral[edit]

du

  1. (cardinal) two



Old French[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Contraction[edit]

du

  1. contraction of de + le (of the)

Old High German[edit]

one drawing of the inscription on the Bülach fibula

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *þū, whence also Old English þu, Old Norse þú, and ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *túh₂. Perhaps the earliest attestation of the pronoun is the inscription on the Bülach fibula, which may show ᛞᚢ (du) already differentiated from other Germanic languages’ þu.

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

du

  1. thou, you (second-person singular pronoun)
    • 3rd-6th century, inscription on the Bülach fibula:
      ᚠᚱᛁᚠᚱᛁᛞᛁᛚ / ᛞᚢ / ...
      frifridil / du / []
      Frifridil, you / []

Descendants[edit]

  • German: du

See also[edit]

  • fridil (a pet name for a male lover)

References[edit]

  • Heinz Klingenberg, Runenfibel von Bülach, Kanton Zürich. Liebesinschrift aus alemannischer Frühzeit, in the Alemannisches Jahrbuch (1973/75), page 308
  • Heinz Klingenberg, Die Runeninschrift aus Bülach, in Helvetia archaeologica, volume 7 (1976), pages 116–121
  • Stephan Opitz, Südgermanische Runeninschriften im älteren Futhark aus der Merowingerzeit (Freiburg im Breisgau, 1977)

Pennsylvania German[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Compare German du, English thou, Swedish du.

Pronoun[edit]

du

  1. you

Romanian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

du

  1. second-person singular imperative form of duce.
    Du-te acasă.
    Go home.

Swedish[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Swedish þū, from Old Norse þú, from Proto-Germanic *þū, from Proto-Indo-European *túh₂.

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

du

  1. (personal) you (familiar sg.).
  2. (personal) thou.

Usage notes[edit]

While du is the traditionally familiar mode of address, it is since the early '70s the standard in almost all circumstances, possibly capitalized in formal communications. This was the result of the so-called du-reformen.

Recently, use of the second-person plural pronoun ni as a less familiar (and thus more formal) pronoun has appeared to some extent, but mainly amongst shopkeepers towards the customers.

The same pronoun ni has also been used historically as a formal way of address, but its use has (in particular in Sweden, not so much in Swedish-speaking parts of Finland) been restricted to addressing people of lower social status, whereby a plethora of different constructions were employed as to avoid the issue of pronouns whatsoever. See also the article about T-V distinction in Wikipedia.

Declension[edit]


Venetian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Compare Italian due

Numeral[edit]

du m

  1. two

Synonyms[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Sino-Vietnamese word from /

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

du

  1. walk

Derived terms[edit]


Welsh[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Brythonic *duβ, from Proto-Celtic *dubus, from Proto-Indo-European *dʰewbʰ-.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

du (feminine singular du, plural duon, equative dued, comparative duach, superlative duaf)

  1. black
    Mae ganddo fo fwstash du.
    He has a black mustache

Mutation[edit]

Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal aspirate
du ddu nu unchanged
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

See also[edit]

Colors in Welsh · lliwiau (layout · text)
     gwyn      llwyd      du      brown
             pinc              coch, rhudd              oren, melyngoch              melyn, melynwyn
             gwyrdd leim              gwyrdd              {{{mint green}}}, {{{dark green}}}              gwyrddlas, glaswyrdd
             asur, gwynlas              glas              fioled, indigo              majenta, porffor