dunkel

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search
See also: Dunkel

English[edit]

Paulaner dunkel

Etymology[edit]

From German dunkel (dark).

Noun[edit]

dunkel (countable and uncountable, plural dunkels)

  1. A type of dark German lager, typically ranging in color from amber to dark reddish brown, and characterized by its smooth malty flavor.
    • 1994, A Stomach for Dissent: The Life of Raymond Postgate, 1896-1971, Keele University Press, page 168:
      I drank dunkel export beer in the Bier Halle where all the girls were called Therese;
    • 1997, The New Brewer, page 120:
      Recently, for instance, he brewed all dunkels for a period, only with different yeast strains.
    • 2008, The Beer Book, DK, page 104:
      Bavarian dunkels are deep reddish-brown in colour.
    • 2014, Gavin D. Smith, Beer: A Global History (The Edible Series), Reaktion Books, →ISBN:
      Dunkels tend to be moderately hopped, made using dark malts, and offer malty, toffee, chocolate flavours. While weissbiers, helles and dunkels are not actually indigenous to Germany, altbier has its origins around the city of Düsseldorf, [].

Further reading[edit]


Danish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

dunkel (neuter dunkelt, plural and definite singular attributive dunkle, comparative dunklere, superlative (predicative) dunklest, superlative (attributive) dunkleste)

  1. dark (with connotations of sinisterness)

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]


German[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle High German tunkel, from Old High German tunkal, tuncal (dark), from Proto-Germanic *dunkalaz (dark), from Proto-Indo-European *dʰengʷ- (to smoke, fume). The modern consonantism is Central and Low German (compare Middle Low German dunker, also dunkel). Cognate to Dutch donker (dark).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈdʊŋkəl/, [ˈdʊŋkəl], [ˈdʊŋkl̩]
  • (file)
  • (file)

Adjective[edit]

dunkel (strong nominative masculine singular dunkler, comparative dunkler or (alternatively in Austria) dünkler, superlative am dunkelsten)

  1. (of light, colour) dark
    Antonym: hell
    Im Winter wird es früher dunkel.
    In the winter, it gets dark earlier.
    Das dunkle Rot gefällt mir besser.
    I like the dark red better.
  2. (of sound) deep
    Synonym: tief
    Antonyms: hell, hoch
    Er hat schon eine ganz dunkle Stimme.
    He’s already got a very deep voice.
  3. (of memory, ideas) vague, faint
    Ich habe nur dunkle Erinnerungen an meine Großmutter.
    I have only faint memories of my grandmother.

Declension[edit]

  • With contractions (normal form):
  • Without contractions (now nonstandard and extremely rare):

Derived terms[edit]

Usage notes[edit]

  • The comparative form dünkler is an equal variant of dunkler in Austrian German.

Verb[edit]

dunkel

  1. inflection of dunkeln:
    1. first-person singular present
    2. singular imperative

Further reading[edit]

  • dunkel” in Digitales Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache
  • dunkel” in Uni Leipzig: Wortschatz-Lexikon
  • dunkel” in Duden online

Norwegian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Low German (compare Middle Low German dunker, also dunkel). Cognate to Dutch donker (dark).

Adjective[edit]

dunkel

  1. dark
  2. unclear, uncertain
  3. mysterious, obscure

Further reading[edit]


Pennsylvania German[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Compare German dunkel, Dutch donker.

Adjective[edit]

dunkel

  1. dark

Synonyms[edit]


Plautdietsch[edit]

Adjective[edit]

dunkel

  1. dark
  2. cloudy
  3. bleak
  4. dim
  5. murky
  6. obscure
  7. sombre

Derived terms[edit]


Swedish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from German dunkel, from Proto-Germanic *dunkalaz. Cognate with Old Norse døkkr.

Adjective[edit]

dunkel (comparative dunklare, superlative dunklast)

  1. dark, dim
  2. (figuratively) obscure, opaque, abstruse
  3. (figuratively) dubious

Declension[edit]

Inflection of dunkel
Indefinite Positive Comparative Superlative2
Common singular dunkel dunklare dunklast
Neuter singular dunkelt dunklare dunklast
Plural dunkla dunklare dunklast
Masculine plural3 dunkle dunklare dunklast
Definite Positive Comparative Superlative
Masculine singular1 dunkle dunklare dunklaste
All dunkla dunklare dunklaste
1) Only used, optionally, to refer to things whose natural gender is masculine.
2) The indefinite superlative forms are only used in the predicative.
3) Dated or archaic

Noun[edit]

dunkel n

  1. darkness, dimness
  2. obscurity

Declension[edit]

Declension of dunkel 
Uncountable
Indefinite Definite
Nominative dunkel dunklet
Genitive dunkels dunklets

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]