em

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English[edit]

English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

Etymology 1[edit]

The typographic em is named after the metal type for the capital M in early printing, whose body was square (the printed letter M is almost never one em in width).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • enPR: ĕm, IPA(key): /ɛm/
  • (file)
  • Rhymes: -ɛm

Noun[edit]

em (plural ems)

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter M.
    The ems and ens at the beginnings and ends.
  2. (typography) A unit of measurement equal to the height of the type in use.
    Synonyms: quad, em quad, mutton, mut
Derived terms[edit]
Translations[edit]
The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout § Translations.

See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Determiner[edit]

em

  1. Alternative form of 'em

Etymology 3[edit]

English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

Coined by Christine M. Elverson by removing the "th" from them, perhaps influenced by the pre-existing em/'em, now often perceived as apheretic forms of them (though originally unrelated).

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

em (third-person singular, gender-neutral, objective case, reflexive emself, possessive adjective eir, possessive pronoun eirs)

  1. (rare) A gender-neutral third-person singular object pronoun, the objective case of ey, equivalent to the singular them and coordinate with him and her.
    • 1986 April 1, Spivak, Michael, The Joy of TeX: A Gourmet Guide to Typesetting with the AMS-TeX macro package[1], Providence: American Mathematical Society, →ISBN, LCCN 85007506, LCC Z253.4.T47 S673 1986, page 68:
      If the author uses such notation, it should be up to Em to indicate Eir intentions clearly, but there's no harm checking first.
    • 1997, Shaviro, Steven, Doom Patrols : A Theoretical Fiction About Postmodernism, London: Serpent's Tail, →ISBN, LCCN 9668813, page 138:
      I may become quite intimate with someone, spend hours with em every night, and yet not have the slightest idea what eir voice sounds like, or what eir RL body looks, feels, and smells like.
    • 2000, Love, Jane, “Ethics, Plugged and Unplugged: The Pegagogy of Disorderly Conduct”, in Inman, James A.; Sewell, Donna N., editors, Taking flight with OWLs: Examining Electronic Writing Center Work[2], Taylor & Francis, →ISBN, LCC PE1414.T24 1999, page 193:
      E invites em to consider how ey represent emselves[sic], and in so doing, e focuses eir attention on the ethics that make human relations possible.
    • 2011 March 15, Edwards, RJ, “89: New Friend”, in Riot Nrrd[3], retrieved 2012-10-06:
      And ultimately: I think my readers are mature enough that knowing eir assigned gender is not going to give them an “excuse” to misgender em.
Synonyms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

Compare um.

Pronunciation[edit]

Interjection[edit]

em

  1. (Scotland, Ireland) a form of hesitant speech, or an expression of uncertainty; um; umm; erm
    She was going to, em... the salon, I think.

Anagrams[edit]


Catalan[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin , from Proto-Indo-European *(e)me-.

Pronoun[edit]

em (proclitic, contracted m', enclitic me, contracted enclitic 'm)

  1. me (direct or indirect object)

Declension[edit]

Usage notes[edit]

  • em is the reinforced (reforçada) form of the pronoun. It is used before verbs beginning with consonant.
    Em dic…My name is… (literally, “I call myself…”)

Czech[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

em n

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter M.

Further reading[edit]

  • em in Příruční slovník jazyka českého, 1935–1957
  • em in Slovník spisovného jazyka českého, 1960–1971, 1989

Latin[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Noun[edit]

em f (indeclinable)

  1. The name of the letter M.
Usage notes[edit]
  • Multiple Latin names for the letter M, m have been suggested. The most common is em or a syllabic m, although there is some evidence which also supports, as names for the letter, , əm, , and even (in the fourth- or fifth-century first Antinoë papyrus, which gives Greek transliterations of the Latin names of the Roman alphabet’s letters) ιμμε (imme).
Coordinate terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Interjection[edit]

em

  1. of wonder or emphasis, there!

References[edit]

  • em in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • em in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • em in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré Latin-Français, Hachette
  • Carl Meissner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[4], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • to sully one's fair fame: vitae splendori(em) maculas(is) aspergere
  • Arthur E. Gordon, The Letter Names of the Latin Alphabet (University of California Press, 1973; volume 9 of University of California Publications: Classical Studies), especially pages 30–31, 42–44, and 63

Latvian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

(file)

Noun[edit]

em m (invariable)

  1. The Latvian name of the Latin script letter M/m.

See also[edit]


Luxembourgish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

em

  1. Reduced form of him

Declension[edit]


Marshallese[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Conjunction[edit]

em

  1. and

References[edit]


Middle English[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

em

  1. Alternative form of hem (them)

Northern Kurdish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

em (oblique me)

  1. we; us (first-person plural personal pronoun)

Old Frisian[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-West Germanic *auhaim (maternal uncle)

Noun[edit]

ēm m

  1. an uncle, mother's brother

Inflection[edit]


Old Norse[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *immi ("am"; a form of the verb *wesaną (to be; dwell)), from Proto-Indo-European *h₁ésmi (I am, I exist). Cognate with English am, Gothic 𐌹𐌼 (im, am), Latin sum (am), Ancient Greek εἰμί (eimí), Albanian jam (I am), Sanskrit अस्मि (ásmi), Latvian esmu ((I) am), esam (we are).

Verb[edit]

em

  1. I am, first-person of vera (meaning "to be")

Derived terms[edit]


Pennsylvania German[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Compare German dem.

Article[edit]

em m (definite)

  1. the

Declension[edit]

Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
Nominative der die es die
Accusative der die es die
Dative dem der em de

Pronoun[edit]

em

  1. to him

Declension[edit]


Portuguese[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Portuguese en, from Latin in (in), from Proto-Italic *en, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁én (in). Doublet of in.

Pronunciation[edit]

Preposition[edit]

em

  1. in; inside; within (contained by)
    Estou na minha casa.
    I’m in my house.
    Encontraram umas moedas no baú.
    They found some coins inside the chest.
  2. on; on top of (located just above the surface of)
    • 2003, J. K. Rowling, Lya Wyler, Harry Potter e a Ordem da Fênix, Rocco, page 417:
      Então o sorriso reapareceu em seu rosto [...]
      Then the smile reappeared on his face [...]
    O livro está na mesa.
    The book is on the table.
  3. in; at (located in a location)
    Os soldados estão na Crimeia.
    The soldiers are in Crimea.
  4. in (part of; a member of)
    Só três jogadores ainda estão nesse time.
    Only three players are still in this team.
  5. in; into; inside (towards the inside of)
    A água entrou em várias casas.
    The water got into various houses.
  6. indicates the target of an action
    Quero dar um soco na tua cara.
    I want to punch you in the face.
    Mete um processo neles.
    Shove a lawsuit down their throats.
  7. in (pertaining to the particular thing)
    Ela não passou em inglês.
    She didn’t pass in English.
  8. in (immediately after a period of time)
    Entraremos em contato com você em duas semanas.
    We will get in contact with you in two weeks.
  9. in; during (within a period of time)
    O jornal será publicado no dia cinco.
    The newspaper will be published on the fifth.
  10. at; in (in a state of)
    Estamos em perigo!
    We’re in danger!
  11. in (indicates means, medium, format, genre or instrumentality)
    Fomos pagos em moeda estrangeira.
    We were paid in foreign currency.
  12. in (indicates a language, script, tone etc. of writing, speaking etc.)
    Li um livro em holandês.
    I read a book in Dutch.
  13. in (wearing)
    A moça em preto.
    The lady in black.
  14. (slang) indicates that the object deserves a given punishment
    Cadeia nele!
    He should be in jail! (literally: jail on him!)

Quotations[edit]

For quotations using this term, see Citations:em.

Synonyms[edit]

Usage notes[edit]

When followed by an article, a pronoun, a demonstrative pronoun or adjective, em is combined with the next word to give the following combined forms:


Scots[edit]

Verb[edit]

em

  1. (South Scots) emphatic first-person singular simple present of ti be

See also[edit]


Swedish[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • em.
  • e.m.
  • e. m.

Noun[edit]

em

  1. pm (indicating hours in the afternoon); Abbreviation of eftermiddagen.

Usage notes[edit]

  • Since the 1960s, Sweden primarily uses the 24 hour clock, making am/pm abbreviations unnecessary and less common

Antonyms[edit]


Tok Pisin[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From English him.

Pronoun[edit]

em

  1. The third person singular pronoun refers to a person or thing other than the speaker or the person being spoken to. Pronouns in Tok Pisin are not inflected for different cases.
    • 1989, Buk Baibel long Tok Pisin, Port Moresby: Bible Society of Papua New Guinea, Jenesis 1:15:
      God i mekim kamap tupela bikpela lait. Bikpela em san bilong givim lait long de, na liklik em mun bilong givim lait long nait. Na God i mekim kamap ol sta tu.
      →New International Version translation

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

This entry has fewer than three known examples of actual usage, the minimum considered necessary for clear attestation, and may not be reliable. This language is subject to a special exemption for languages with limited documentation. If you speak it, please consider editing this entry or adding citations. See also Help and the Community Portal.

See also[edit]


Torres Strait Creole[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From English him.

Pronoun[edit]

em

  1. he/she/it (third-person singular pronoun)

Veps[edit]

Verb[edit]

em

  1. first-person plural present of ei

Vietnamese[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Vietic *ʔɛːm, from Proto-Mon-Khmer *(sʔ)iəm; cognate with Pacoh a-em (younger sibling).

According to Phan Kế Bính's Việt Nam phong tục (1915), apparently the practice of calling each other anh-em for those in relationship originated from the province of Quảng Nam:

1915, Phan Kế Bính, Việt Nam phong tục [Vietnamese customs]:

Vợ chồng con nhà sang trọng, gọi nhau bằng cậu mợ, thầy thông thầy phán thì gọi nhau bằng thầy , nhà thường thì gọi nhau bằng anh chị. Có con rồi thì gọi nhau bằng thầy em đẻ em, nhà thô tục thì gọi nhau là bố cu mẹ đĩ, có người thì gọi bố nó mẹ nó, có người cả hai vợ chồng gọi lẫn nhau là nhà ta. Ở Quảng-Nam thì vợ gọi chồng là anh, chồng gọi vợ là em. Ở Nghệ Tĩnh vợ chồng gọi là gấy nhông.

Spouses from wealthy families tend to call each other cậu and mợ; those employed by the government prefer thầy and ; while in an average household, they call each other anh and chị. Couples with children call each other thầy em [father of the little one] and đẻ em [mother of the little one], while those from low-born families use bố cu and mẹ đĩ; there are also those who say bố nó and mẹ nó and those who both call each other nhà ta. In Quảng Nam, housewives call their husband anh and the husbands call their wife em. In Nghệ Tĩnh, "husband and wife" is called gấy nhông.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(classifier đứa, thằng, con) em (, , )

  1. a younger sibling
    (đứa/thằng/con) em (của) emmy younger sibling/brother/sister
  2. someone who's presumably a little younger than you, or old enough relative to you to be your younger sibling
    • [2012, Ruelle, Joe, “People pháp [Peoprammar]”, in Ngược chiều vun vút [Whooshing toward the Other Way]‎[5]:
      Ví dụ, tôi có một người bạn 30 tuổi tên Thủy. Tôi và bạn ấy có một người bạn chung tên Huyền, mới 25 tuổi. Khi nhắc bạn Thủy với bạn Huyền, tôi có thể dùng “chị”.
      “Huyền ơi, em nhớ qua nhà chị Thủy lấy chìa khóa nhé!”
      Ý tôi là “Thủy: chị của em”. Mặc dù Thủy là em của tôi (năm nay tôi 32 tuổi), nhưng khi nhắc Thủy trong câu trên tôi sẽ “nói hộ” Huyền. Đơn giản phải không? Khi nhắc người B trong lúc nói chuyện với người A thì mình có thể dùng đại từ xưng hô nói hộ người A.
      Không đơn giản như thế đâu nhé. (Mà với nhiều người nước ngoài học tiếng Việt, cái “đơn giản” ấy đã khủng khiếp lắm rồi). Trời sẽ mưa gió.
      Ví dụ, tôi thuê nhà cùng anh Hoàng, 40 tuổi, và anh Quân, 37 tuổi. Anh Hoàng gọi anh Quân bằng “em”, nhưng tôi không nên nói:
      “Anh Hoàng ơi, anh nhớ qua phòng em Quân lấy chìa khóa nhé!”
      Ý tôi là “Quân: em của anh”, nhưng vì một luật people pháp nào đó nên ý tôi không ra. Tôi phải nói “qua phòng anh Quân lấy chìa khóa”. Có nghĩa là tôi không được nói hộ anh Hoàng. Tôi không được nói từ góc nhìn anh Hoàng mà phải nói từ góc nhìn của chính mình. Góc nhìn khiêm tốn nhất.
      Let's say I have a 30-year-old friend named Thuỷ. She and I share a 25-year-old friend named Huyền. When I talk about Thuỷ to Huyền, I can use chị.
      "Huyền, don't forget to go get the keys at chị Thuỷ's!"
      What I mean is "Thuỷ is your chị." Even though Thuỷ is actually my em (I'm 32), when I talk about her I have to use what Huyền would use. Simple right? When you talk about B to A, you can use the pronoun A would use.
      Oh no no no, anything but simple. (And to most foreign learners, that "simple" usage above is already an ordeal). There will be a rainstorm.
      Let's say I share a flat with Hoàng (40) and Quân (37). Hoàng calls Quân his em, but I can't really say:
      "Anh Hoàng, don't forget to go get the keys in em Quân's room!"
      What I mean is "Quân is your em", but because of some weird peoprammar, that doesn't sound quite right. What I should say is "go get the keys in anh Quân's room". Which mean I can't use what Hoàng would use. I can't speak from his perspective, but from my own. From the most humble one.
      ]

Derived terms[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

em (, , )

  1. (familiar) I/me, someone who's presumably a little younger than you, or old enough relative to you to be your younger sibling
    (đứa/thằng/con) em (của) emmy younger sibling/brother/sister
  2. I/me, your girlfriend or wife
  3. I/me, your student who's younger than you
  4. (familiar) you, someone who's presumably a little younger than me, or old enough relative to me to be my younger sibling
  5. you, my girlfriend or wife
    Antonyms: anh, tôi
    • (Can we date this quote?), Pushkin, Alexander, “Tôi yêu em [I Loved You]”, in Hoàng Thúy Toàn, transl.,(Please provide the book title or journal name), translation of Я вас любил:
      Tôi yêu em âm thầm, không hi vọng,
      Lúc rụt rè, khi hậm hực lòng ghen,
      Tôi yêu em, yêu chân thành, đằm thắm,
      Cầu em được người tình như tôi đã yêu em.
      I loved you, without words, without hope,
      Sometimes I felt shy, sometimes I felt tortured with jealousy,
      I loved you, truly and deeply,
      I pray you'll find someone who loves you as much as I ever did.
    • (Can we date this quote?), Éluard, Paul, “Tự do [Liberty]”, in Phùng Văn Tửu, transl.,(Please provide the book title or journal name), translation of Liberté:
      Và bằng phép màu một tiếng
      Tôi bắt đầu lại cuộc đời
      Tôi sinh ra để biết tên em
      Để gọi tên em
      TỰ DO.
      And by the power of one word
      I start my life over
      I was born to know you
      To say your name
      Liberty.
  6. you, my student who's younger than me
  7. (education) you, the grade school or middle school student reading this textbook
    Synonyms: anh, chị
    Viết một đoạn văn ngắn miêu tả một thứ bố em làm cho em.
    Write a short descriptive essay about something your father made for you.

Synonyms[edit]

  • (in teacher-student relationship): con

Adjective[edit]

em (, , )

  1. small; smaller

See also[edit]


Welsh[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

em f (plural emiau)

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter M.

Mutation[edit]

Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal h-prothesis
em unchanged unchanged hem
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

See also[edit]