er

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Contents

English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Mimetic (sound of hesitation)

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ɜː/
  • Used in non-rhotic dialects. Compare uh.
  • (file)

Interjection[edit]

er

  1. Said when hesitating in speech.

Verb[edit]

er (third-person singular simple present ers, present participle erring, simple past and past participle erred)

  1. (informal) To utter the word "er" when hesitating in speech, found almost exclusively in the phrase um and er.
    He ummed and erred his way through the presentation.

See also[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Afrikaans[edit]

Noun[edit]

er (plural erre or ers, diminutive erretjie)

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter R/r.

Alemannic German[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

er m

  1. (personal) he; it

Declension[edit]


Breton[edit]

Contraction[edit]

er

  1. e (preposition "in") + ur (indefinite article "a(n)")
  2. e (preposition "in") + ar (definite article "the")

Cornish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Celtic *eriros (eagle) (compare Breton erer, Welsh eryr, Old Irish irar), from Proto-Indo-European *h₃érō (large bird).

er (an eagle)

Noun[edit]

er m (plural eryon or eres)

  1. eagle

Etymology 2[edit]

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions. You can also discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.

Noun[edit]

er m (plural erys)

  1. heir

Etymology 3[edit]

See the etymology of the main entry.

Noun[edit]

er

  1. Soft mutation of ger.

Crimean Tatar[edit]

Adjective[edit]

er

  1. every

Czech[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

er n

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter R/r.

Further reading[edit]

  • er in Příruční slovník jazyka českého, 1935–1957
  • er in Slovník spisovného jazyka českého, 1960–1971, 1989

Danish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ɛr/, [æɐ̯], but often elided in spontaneous speech.

Verb[edit]

er

  1. present tense of være

Dutch[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ɛr/, /ər/, /dər/

Etymology 1[edit]

Weak form of der, the unstressed form of daar ("there")

Adverb[edit]

er

  1. there (unspecific to distance)
  2. (with a preposition) him, her, it, them.
    Ik heb ermee gewerkt.
    I have worked with it/them.
    Je kunt er de bergen boven zien.
    You can see the mountains above it/them.
Usage notes[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Dutch iro, genitive of the personal pronoun (3rd person plural).

Adverb[edit]

er

  1. (partitive pronoun) of them, of those (often not translated in English)
    Mijn broer heeft drie kinderen en ik heb er twee.
    My brother has three children and I have two. (literally: two of those)
    Ik zie er geen meer.
    I don't see any more (of them).
Synonyms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

See Category:Dutch pronominal adverbs

Related terms[edit]
See also[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


East Damar[edit]

Noun[edit]

er

  1. water

References[edit]


Faroese[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

er

  1. third-person singular indicative present of at vera

Conjugation[edit]


German[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old High German er, from Proto-Germanic *iz. Displaced the northern Old High German forms with h-, e.g. , her (see he).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (standard) IPA(key): /ʔeːɐ̯/, /ʔɛʁ/
  • (colloquially in unstressed position) IPA(key): /ɐ/

Pronoun[edit]

er

  1. (personal) he.
    (file)
    Wo ist Klaus? Wo ist er?
    Where is Klaus? Where is he?
    • Clemens Brentano, Geschichte vom braven Kasperl und dem schönen Annerl (edited). In: 1835, F. W. Gubitz (editor), Jahrbuch des Nützlichen und Unterhaltenden für 1835, p. 171:
      Da fuhr die Alte überraſcht auf und ſprach: Lieber Herr, gehe er doch nach Haus und bete er fein und lege er ſich ſchlafen.
  2. (personal) it (when the grammatical gender of the object/article/thing/animal etc., being referred to, is masculine (der)).
    (file)
    Dies ist mein Hund. Er heißt Waldi.
    This is my dog. His name is Waldi.
    (file)
    Dort steht ein Baum. Er ist über hundert Jahre alt.
    There stands a tree. It is more than 100 years old.

Inflection[edit]

1Often capitalized, especially in letters

In contemporary German, the genitive forms of personal pronouns are restricted to formal style and are infrequent even then. They may be used

  • for the genitive object still found in a handful of verbs: Ich erbarmte mich seiner. – "I had mercy on him". (Colloquially one would either use the dative case, or a prepositional object, or replace the verb with another.)
  • after the preposition statt ("instead of, in place of"): Ich kam statt seiner in die Mannschaft. – I joined the team in his place. (This sounds antiquated, for which reason an seiner Statt or an seiner Stelle is preferable.)

Further reading[edit]

  • er in Duden online

Hunsrik[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • ëyer (Wiesemann spelling system)

Etymology[edit]

From Old High German er, from Proto-Germanic *iz. Displaced the northern Old High German forms with h-, e.g. , her (see he).

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

er

  1. he

Inflection[edit]

Further reading[edit]


Icelandic[edit]

Verb[edit]

er

  1. First-person singular indicative present form of vera.
    Ég er skemmtilegur.
    I am fun (masculine)
    Hver er ég?
    Who am I?
  2. Third-person singular indicative present form of vera.
    Veit einhver hvar pabbi minn er?
    Does anybody know where my dad is?
    Hver er hann?
    Who is he?

Pronoun[edit]

er

  1. (relative) which
    Maður er , er Jón heitir.
    There is a man who is named John.
    Konan, er hann vartala við.
    The woman to whom he was talking.
    Þetta er borgin, er hann kom frá.
    This is the city from which he originated.
    Bærinn, er hún ætlar til.
    The town to which she's heading.
  2. (archaic) in relations with a demonstrative pronoun (this, that, these) or personal pronoun (I, we, they), which represents the genitive of a relative pronoun.
    Það er bók, er menn þekkja eigi höfund hennar.
    There is a book whose author people don't know.

Conjunction[edit]

er

  1. (with an "indexical"; ábendingarorð) of a place, of a time
    • Judges 2:19
      En er dómarinn andaðist, breyttu þeir að nýju verr en feður þeirra, með því að elta aðra guði til þess að þjóna þeim og falla fram fyrir þeim. Þeir létu eigi af gjörðum sínum né þrjóskubreytni sinni.
      But when the judge died, the people returned to ways even more corrupt than those of their ancestors, following other gods and serving and worshiping them. They refused to give up their evil practices and stubborn ways.
    Þar er ég kom.
    There whence I came.
    Þá er myndin var búin.
    When the movie was finished.

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • er in Geir T. Zoëga (1910) A Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic, Oxford: Clarendon Press

Latin[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Italic *hēr, from Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰḗr (hedgehog) (whence also Ancient Greek χήρ (khḗr, hedgehog)), a root noun from *ǵʰer- (to be excited, be bristly), whence also Ancient Greek χοῖρος (khoîros, young pig) and Albanian derr (pig) from *ǵʰór-yos.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

ēr m (genitive ēris); third declension

  1. hedgehog
Usage notes[edit]

There is some uncertainty as to the exact forms of this word, especially regarding whether the lemma form of this was ēr or ēris, as the forms attested in literature could point to either option. Another form, irim (acc. sing.; found in Plautus, Capt. 184), seems to be a spelling variant.

Inflection[edit]

Third declension.

Case Singular Plural
nominative ēr ērēs
genitive ēris ērum
dative ērī ēribus
accusative ērem ērēs
ablative ēre ēribus
vocative ēr ērēs
Related terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

er (indeclinable)

  1. The name of the letter R.
Usage notes[edit]
  • Multiple Latin names for the letter R, r have been suggested. The most common is er or a syllabic r, although there is some evidence which also supports, as names for the letter, , rrr, ər, , and even (in the fourth- or fifth-century first Antinoë papyrus, which gives Greek transliterations of the Latin names of the Roman alphabet’s letters) ιρρε (irrhe).
Coordinate terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “ēr”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 193

Latvian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

(file)

Noun[edit]

er m (invariable)

  1. The Latvian name of the Latin script letter R/r.

See also[edit]


Low German[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

er

  1. Alternative spelling of ehr

Mambae[edit]

Noun[edit]

er

  1. water

References[edit]

  • Mambai Language Manual: Ainaro Dialect (2001)

Mandarin[edit]

Romanization[edit]

er

  1. Nonstandard spelling of ér.
  2. Nonstandard spelling of ěr.
  3. Nonstandard spelling of èr.

Usage notes[edit]

  • English transcriptions of Mandarin speech often fail to distinguish between the critical tonal differences employed in the Mandarin language, using words such as this one without the appropriate indication of tone.

Manx[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Irish for.

Preposition[edit]

er


  1. on
  2. onto
  3. during
  4. for

Inflection[edit]

Singular Plural
Person 1st 2nd 3rd m. 3rd f. 1st 2nd 3rd
Normal orrym ort er urree orrin erriu orroo
Emphatic orryms orts ersyn urreeish orrinyn erriuish orroosyn

Pronoun[edit]

er

  1. 3rd person singular of er
    on him/it

Derived terms[edit]


Middle Dutch[edit]

Adverb[edit]

er

  1. unstressed form of dāer

Middle English[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Determiner[edit]

er

  1. Alternative form of hire

Pronoun[edit]

er

  1. Alternative form of hire

References[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

er

  1. Alternative form of hire

References[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

From Old English ēar.

Noun[edit]

er

  1. Alternative form of eere (ear of grain)

Etymology 4[edit]

Determiner[edit]

er

  1. Alternative form of here (their)
References[edit]

Norwegian Bokmål[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

er

  1. present tense of være (=to be)

Norwegian Nynorsk[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

er

  1. present tense of vera and vere
  2. is, are, am (present of to be)
    Boka er skriven.The book is written
    Bøkene er skrivne.The books are written.
    Eg er framand.I am a stranger.

References[edit]

  • “vera” in The Nynorsk Dictionary.
  • “er på engelsk”, in DinOrdbok, Nynorsk-engelsk oversettelse[1], accessed 2018-10-15

Old Dutch[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *airiz; see also ær. Cognate with Old Saxon ēr.

Adverb[edit]

er (ēr)

  1. previously, in an earlier period, in a bygone time
  2. earlier, before a certain time or period

Preposition[edit]

er (ēr)

  1. (temporal) before, earlier than

Conjunction[edit]

er (ēr)

  1. ere, afore

References[edit]

er in the INL database


Old Frisian[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

er

  1. he

Declension[edit]


Old High German[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *airiz, whence also Old English ær.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

ēr

  1. early

Adverb[edit]

ēr

  1. ere, before
  2. formerly

Conjunction[edit]

ēr

  1. before, until

Preposition[edit]

ēr (+ dative)

  1. before

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *aiz, akin to Old English ār, Old Norse eir.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

ēr n

  1. ore
  2. brass
Descendants[edit]
  • Middle High German: er

Etymology 3[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *iz (he), akin to Gothic 𐌹𐍃 (is, he), Latin is (he).

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

er

  1. he
Inflection[edit]
Old high German personal pronouns
Number Person Gender Nominative Genitive Dative Accusative
Singular First ih mīn mir mih
Second dīn dir dih
Third Masculine (h)er (sīn) imu, imo inan, in
Feminine siu; , si ira, iru iro sia
Neuter iz es, is imu, imo iz
Plural First wir unsēr uns unsih
Second ir iuwēr iu iuwih
Third Masculine sie iro im, in sie
Feminine sio iro im, in sio
Neuter siu iro im, in siu
Polite form Second   ir iuwēr iu iuwih
Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • Joseph Wright, An Old High German Primer

Old Norse[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse es. The final -s was replaced by -r due to analogy to the plural forms of vera.

Pronoun[edit]

er

  1. who, which, that

Conjunction[edit]

er

  1. where
  2. when

Verb[edit]

er

  1. third-person singular indicative present tense of vera

Descendants[edit]

  • Faroese: er
  • Icelandic: er
  • Westrobothnian: -es

References[edit]

  • er in Geir T. Zoëga (1910) A Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic, Oxford: Clarendon Press

Old Saxon[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *airiz, whence also Old English ær.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

ēr

  1. early
Declension[edit]


Adverb[edit]

ēr

  1. before, ere
  2. formerly

Conjunction[edit]

ēr

  1. before

Preposition[edit]

ēr (+ dative)

  1. before

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *aiz, whence also Old English ār.

Pronunciation[edit]

Phonetik.svg This entry needs pronunciation information. If you are familiar with the IPA then please add some!

Noun[edit]

ēr ?

  1. copper, bronze
  2. ore
Descendants[edit]
  • Middle Low German: ēr

Polish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

er

  1. genitive plural of era

Scots[edit]

Verb[edit]

er

  1. (South Scots) Second-person simple present form of ti be
  2. (South Scots) Plural simple present form of ti be
  3. (South Scots) First-person singular simple present form of an obscure form of ti be
    A'm er so!

Usage notes[edit]

Used emphatically. See ir.


Swedish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Contraction of earlier eder, from Old Norse yðr, from Proto-Germanic *izwiz, dative/accusative of *jūz, from Proto-Indo-European *yū́.

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

er c (neuter possessive only ert, plural era)

  1. you (plural, object)
  2. (possessive) your, yours; (speaking to more than one person, about one object)
  3. (reflexive) reflexive of ni; compare yourselves
    Skulle ni vilja lära er jonglera?
    Would you guys like to learn how to juggle?

Usage notes[edit]

  • See ni for a note on its use as a courteous 2nd person singular.
  • Even though er (2) and its archaic form eder is the possessive pronoun, it does have a genitive form ers and eders, which is only used in expressions like ers majestät (your majesty) and ers höghet (your highness).

Declension[edit]


Turkish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Turkic er (er), from Proto-Turkic *ẹ̄r (early), which, according to the controversial Altaic hypothesis, is possibly derived from Proto-Altaic *ḗre (early).

Adjective[edit]

er

  1. early

References[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Turkic er (er), from Proto-Turkic *ēr (man), which, according to the controversial Altaic hypothesis, is possibly derived from Proto-Altaic *ā́ri (~ *ḗra) (man). Related to noun-forming suffix -er.

Noun[edit]

er (definite accusative eri, plural erler)

  1. brave
  2. man, male
  3. noble
  4. conscript, private (soldier of the lowest rank of the army)
  5. tribesman
  6. warrior
Declension[edit]
Inflection
Nominative er
Definite accusative eri
Singular Plural
Nominative er erler
Definite accusative eri erleri
Dative ere erlere
Locative erde erlerde
Ablative erden erlerden
Genitive erin erlerin
Possessive forms
Singular Plural
1st singular erim erlerim
2nd singular erin erlerin
3rd singular eri erleri
1st plural erimiz erlerimiz
2nd plural eriniz erleriniz
3rd plural erleri erleri
Predicative forms
Singular Plural
1st singular erim erlerim
2nd singular ersin erlersin
3rd singular er
erdir
erler
erlerdir
1st plural eriz erleriz
2nd plural ersiniz erlersiniz
3rd plural erler erlerdir

Verb[edit]

er

  1. reach (imperative)

References[edit]


West Frisian[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

er

  1. he

Usage notes[edit]

  • (he): Er is used before the object of the sentence or after the verb, if there is one. It is never the first word of a sentence.
    • Doe't er in swolch naam -- "When he took a swallow", (literally "When he a swallow took")

Especially in narrative, er is used in the past tense. In other cases, hy is used.