- The process of increasing the popularity of football (soccer) in a region.
- The influence of football on real-life matters such as politics, economics and the media.
- The tendency to turn issues into "political footballs".
- Google Books: Football, Nationality and the State by By Vic Duke and Liz Crolley 
- Google Books: Globalised Football: Nations and Migration, the City and the Dream by Nina Clara Tiesler, Joao Nuno Coelho 
- Google Books: Gender and Sport: Changes and Challenges, edited by Gertrud Pfister and Mari Kristin Sisjord