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Alternative forms




Of uncertain origin.

Attested from Varro onwards. The ending is -iēs (noun-forming suffix), and the initial element is traditionally compared to gelū (frost),[1][2] from Proto-Indo-European *gel- (to freeze). Nevertheless, per De Vaan, there is no apparent way to derive glaciēs from the latter.[3][4]

Lewis & Short proposed a connection with Ancient Greek γάλα (gála, milk), noting also the verb γλαγάω (glagáō, to be milky).[5] The implication that glaciēs is related to lac (milk) is neither semantically nor phonologically convincing.

This etymology is incomplete. You can help Wiktionary by elaborating on the origins of this term.





glaciēs f (genitive glaciēī); fifth declension

  1. ice
  2. (figuratively) hardness



Fifth-declension noun.

Case Singular Plural
Nominative glaciēs glaciēs
Genitive glaciēī glaciērum
Dative glaciēī glaciēbus
Accusative glaciem glaciēs
Ablative glaciē glaciēbus
Vocative glaciēs glaciēs

Derived terms




Direct reflexes:

  • Asturian: llaz
  • Leonese: yaz

Reflexes of an assumed *glacium/-a (compare Late Latin glacia):


  1. ^ Weiss, Michael L. (2009) Outline of the Historical and Comparative Grammar of Latin[1], Ann Arbor: Beech Stave Press, →ISBN, § V, page 323
  2. ^ Ernout, Alfred, Meillet, Antoine (1985) “glacies”, in Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue latine: histoire des mots[2] (in French), 4th edition, with additions and corrections of Jacques André, Paris: Klincksieck, published 2001, page 275
  3. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) “glaciēs”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 263
  4. ^ Weiss, Michael L. (2009) Outline of the Historical and Comparative Grammar of Latin[3], Ann Arbor: Beech Stave Press, →ISBN, § V, page 323
  5. ^ glacies”, in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press

Further reading