gladius

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English[edit]

English Wikipedia has an article on:
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English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

Etymology[edit]

From Latin gladius (Roman short sword, gladius). Doublet of glaive.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

gladius (plural gladiuses or gladii)

  1. (historical) A Roman sword roughly two feet long.
    • 1882, "The Genesis of the Sword", Popular Science Monthly, Volume 21, page 81:
      Finally, the Romans made the gladius—sharp, of highly-tempered steel, and strongly piercing—the first real sword (Figs. 17, 18, 19), of which only five specimens are now known to exist.
    • 2007, Pat Southern, The Roman Army: A Social and Institutional History, page 212:
      The gladius was effective either for cutting or for thrusting and was used by legionaries and auxiliaries.
  2. (zoology) A pen, a hard internal bodypart of certain cephalopods, made of chitin-like material.
    • 2017, Mark Carnall, The Guardian, 31 October:
      From the Cretaceous of North America fossilised gladii in the enigmatic genus Tusoteuthis have been estimated to give a mantle length (body size) of 1.8m, just less than that of the giant squid’s.

Translations[edit]


Dutch[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Gladius.

From Latin gladius (Roman short sword, gladius).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (file)

Noun[edit]

gladius m (plural gladii, diminutive gladiusje n)

  1. Roman short sword; gladius
    Hypernym: kortzwaard

See also[edit]

Usage notes[edit]

Like many Dutch words borrowed from Latin, the plural takes the form of the Latin nominative plural.


Finnish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

< Latin

Noun[edit]

gladius

  1. gladius (Roman sword)
    Hypernym: miekka

Declension[edit]

Inflection of gladius (Kotus type 39/vastaus, no gradation)
nominative gladius gladiukset
genitive gladiuksen gladiusten
gladiuksien
partitive gladiusta gladiuksia
illative gladiukseen gladiuksiin
singular plural
nominative gladius gladiukset
accusative nom. gladius gladiukset
gen. gladiuksen
genitive gladiuksen gladiusten
gladiuksien
partitive gladiusta gladiuksia
inessive gladiuksessa gladiuksissa
elative gladiuksesta gladiuksista
illative gladiukseen gladiuksiin
adessive gladiuksella gladiuksilla
ablative gladiukselta gladiuksilta
allative gladiukselle gladiuksille
essive gladiuksena gladiuksina
translative gladiukseksi gladiuksiksi
instructive gladiuksin
abessive gladiuksetta gladiuksitta
comitative gladiuksineen
Possessive forms of gladius (type vastaus)
possessor singular plural
1st person gladiukseni gladiuksemme
2nd person gladiuksesi gladiuksenne
3rd person gladiuksensa

Related terms[edit]


Latin[edit]

gladius

Etymology[edit]

Possibly from Gaulish *kladyos (sword), from Proto-Celtic *kladiwos (sword) (compare Old Irish claideb (sword), from Proto-Indo-European *kelh₂- (to beat, break). Cognate with Latin clādes, clāva, percellō.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

gladius m (genitive gladiī or gladī); second declension

  1. sword
    Synonyms: ēnsis, mūcrō, spatha
    Mitte gladium in vaginam.Put the sword into its sheath.
    in gladium incumbereto fall on one's sword
  2. (figuratively) murder, death
    Synonym: mors
  3. a gladiatorial contest
  4. swordfish
    Synonym: xiphiās
  5. (slang) penis

Declension[edit]

Second-declension noun.

Case Singular Plural
Nominative gladius gladiī
Genitive gladiī
gladī1
gladiōrum
Dative gladiō gladiīs
Accusative gladium gladiōs
Ablative gladiō gladiīs
Vocative gladie gladiī

1Found in older Latin (until the Augustan Age).

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Gallo-Italic:
    • Old Ligurian: iao (sword)
    • Old Lombard: giaio
    • Piedmontese: sgiái (horror)
  • Gallo-Romance:
    • Old Catalan: glay, glai (sword, fright)
      • Catalan: esglai (fright)
    • Old Franco-Provençal: glaio
    • Old French: glai, glay (sword, lance, sword-lily) glaiol (sword-lily)
    • Old Occitan: glai (horror, ice), glazi (sword, carnage) (probably from gladī NOM.PL)
  • Italo-Romance:
    • Italian: ghiado (sword, cold)
    • Neapolitan: jajo (disgust, shiver)
    • Sicilian: agghiajare (freeze) (Calabrian)
  • Late Latin:
    • glavus (see there for further descendants)
  • Borrowings:

References[edit]

  • gladius”, in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • gladius”, in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • gladius in Charles du Fresne du Cange’s Glossarium Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (augmented edition with additions by D. P. Carpenterius, Adelungius and others, edited by Léopold Favre, 1883–1887)
  • gladius in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré latin-français, Hachette
  • Carl Meißner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • a sword hangs over his neck: gladius cervicibus impendet
    • to use javelins at a distance, swords at close quarters: eminus hastis, comminus gladiis uti
    • to draw one's sword (from the scabbard): gladium educere (e vagīna)
    • to sheath one's sword: gladium in vaginam recondere
    • to draw one's sword: gladium stringere, destringere
    • to plunge one's sword in some one's breast: gladium alicui in pectus infigere
    • to transfix, pierce a man's breast with one's sword: gladio aliquem per pectus transfigere (Liv. 2. 46)
    • to fight with swords at close quarters: gladio comminus (opp. eminus) rem gerere
    • to throw down the javelins (pila) and fight with the sword: omissis pilis gladiis rem gerere
    • swords must now decide the day: res ad gladios vēnit
    • swords must now decide the day: res gladiis geri coepta est
    • to throw oneself on the enemy with drawn sword: strictis gladiis in hostem ferri
  • gladius”, in Harry Thurston Peck, editor (1898) Harper's Dictionary of Classical Antiquities, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • gladius”, in William Smith et al., editor (1890) A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, London: William Wayte. G. E. Marindin
  • von Wartburg, Walther (1928–2002), “gladius”, in Französisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch (in German), volume 4: G H I, page 144