gotten

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English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Morphologically got +‎ -en.

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

gotten

  1. (chiefly Canada, US, Ireland, Scotland, Northern English, or archaic) past participle of get

Usage notes[edit]

  • The American and archaic or regional British usage of the verb conjugates as get-got-gotten or as get-got-got depending on the meaning (see Usage notes on "get" for details), whereas the modern general British usage of the verb has largely lost this distinction and normally conjugates as get-got-got in most cases except, sometimes, where the speaker wants to emphasise getting something. Gotten has also survived in adjectives, especially in ill-gotten gains. There is an increased usage of gotten in the UK, which may be due to influence from American films and increased access to American programmes in Britain. However, it is still less common than the get-got-got conjugation.

Adjective[edit]

gotten (not comparable)

  1. (mostly in combination) obtained, acquired

Derived terms[edit]