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From gula (“upper throat”) + -ar (suffix forming adjectives). Gula is derived from Latin gula (“gullet, throat; palate”), ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *gʷel- (“throat”).
- (Received Pronunciation) IPA(key): /ˈɡjuːlə/
- (General American) IPA(key): /ˈɡ(j)ulɚ/
Audio (GA) (file)
- Rhymes: -uːlə(ɹ)
- Hyphenation: gul‧ar
gular (not comparable)
- (chiefly zoology) Particularly of an animal: of, pertaining to, or located at the gula (“the upper front of the neck next to the chin”) or the throat.
- 1806, Charles Linnè [i.e., Carl Linnaeus], “Order VII. Aptera.”, in William Turton, transl., A General System of Nature, through the Three Grand Kingdoms of Animals, Vegetables, and Minerals, […], volume III (Animal Kingdom), part II (Insects), London: […] Lackington, Allen, and Co. […], →OCLC, page 702:
- Iguanæ. [...] Inhabits America, on the gular pouch of the Iguana.
- 1816, G[eorge] Gregory, “LACERTA, lizard”, in A Dictionary of Arts and Sciences. […], 1st American edition, volume II, Philadelphia, Pa.: […] Isaac Peirce, […], →OCLC:
- The back of the guana is very strongly serrated; and this, together with the gular pouch, which it has the power of extending or inflating occasionally to a great degree, gives a formidable appearance to an animal otherwise harmless.
- 1829, [Georges] Cuvier; Edward Griffith, “The Third Order of Birds, Scansores, or Climbers”, in The Animal Kingdom Arranged in Conformity with Its Organization, […], volume VII, London: […] Whittaker, Treacher, and Co. […], →OCLC, page 449:
- The Field Woodpecker. P. Campestris. [...] Head, chin, and throat, black; front of neck, yellowish; gular streak black; body beneath, white. America.
- 1842, James E[llsworth] De Kay, “Class III. Reptiles.”, in Zoology of New-York; or The New-York Fauna; […] (Natural History of New York; I), part III (Reptiles and Amphibia), Albany, N.Y.: […] W. & A. White & J. Visscher, →OCLC, page 6:
- THE SOFT-SHELLED TURTLE. Trionyx ferox. [...] Neck long, smooth, with a gular fold.
- 1870, John Edward Gray, “Cyclanosteus”, in Supplement to the Catalogue of Shield Reptiles in the Collection of the British Museum. Part I. Testudinata (Tortoises). […], London: […] Trustees [of the British Museum], →OCLC, page 112, column 2:
- Cyclanosteus senegalensis. [...] The five gular callosities are very similar in disposition; but they vary greatly in form and size, compared with each other, in the different speciments of this species.
- 1995, Gordon Lindsay Maclean, “Thermoregulation”, in Ecophysiology of Desert Birds (Adaptation of Desert Organisms), Berlin; Heidelberg: Springer, →ISBN, section 6.2.1 (Evaporative Heat Loss (EHL)), page 91:
- Evaporative cooling via the respiratory tract in birds is enhanced by increased movement of the air by panting or by gular flutter.
- 1998, John D. McEachran; Janice D. Fechhelm, “Elopiformes”, in Fishes of the Gulf of Mexico, volume 1 (Myxiniformes to Gasterosteiformes), Austin, Tex.: University of Texas Press, →ISBN, page 204:
- Ladyfishes are elongate, slender, and robust, with a terminal mouth and a deeply forked caudal fin. [...] Gular plate, located between limbs of lower jaw, is well developed.
of, pertaining to, or located at the gula or the throat
gular (plural gulars)
- (zoology) A plate or scale in the throat region of the body of a fish or reptile (especially a snake).
- 1863, E[dward] D[rinker] Cope, “Descriptions of New American SQUAMATA, in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington”, in Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pa.: […] Academy [of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia], published 1864, →ISSN, →OCLC, page 104:
- Cnemidophorus maximus [...] Plates of the collar graduating in the posterior gular, the marginal largest, the series concave anteriorly in the middle. Anterior gulars abruptly larger, their median largest.
- 1989, Richard C. Boycott, “Homopus boulengeri [...]”, in Ian R[ichard] Swingland and Michael W. Klemens, editors, The Conservation Biology of Tortoises […] (Occasional Papers of the IUCN Species Survival Commission (SSC); no. 5), Gland, Vaud, Switzerland: International Union for Conservation of Nature, →ISBN, page 78:
- A small tortoise, females larger than males, with a maximum carapace length of 110 mm and mass of 150 g. [...] The plastron is composed of paired gulars, which together are more than twice as wide than long; [...]
- 2013, Igor G. Danilov; Vladimir B. Sukhanov; Elena V. Syromyatnikova, “Redescription of Zangerlia dzamynchondi (Testudines: Nanhsiungchelyidae) from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia, with a Reassessment of the Phylogenetic Position and Relationships of Zangerlia”, in Donald B. Brinkman, Patricia A. Holroyd, and James D. Gardner, editors, Morphology and Evolution of Turtles […] (Vertebrate Paleobiology and Paleoanthropology Series), Dordrecht: Springer, →DOI, →ISBN, →ISSN, page 412, column 1:
- The plastral scutes are represented by a complete set including the gulars, extragulars, humerals, pectorals, abdominals, femorals, and four pairs of inframarginals. The gulars are very short medially and do not reach the entoplastron.
plate or scale in the throat region of the body of a fish or reptile
Borrowed from Hindi गूलर (gūlar).
- (Received Pronunciation) IPA(key): /ˈɡuːlɑː/
- (General American) IPA(key): /ˈɡulɑɹ/
- Hyphenation: gu‧lar
gular (plural gulars)
- (India) Synonym of cluster fig (“Ficus racemosa, a species of plant in the family Moraceae; the edible fruit of this plant”).
- 1836, “Appendix No. II. List of Specimens of Wood from India, &c. Presented to the Society by Capt. H. C. Baker, of the Bengal Artillery.”, in Transactions of the Society Instituted at London for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce: […], volume L, London: […] J. Moyes, […][for the Royal Society of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce], →OCLC:
- Goolar, or Doomur. Ficus glomerata.
- 1842 April, Lieut. Tickell, “Remarks on Pteropus Edulis, Geoffroy”, in John M‘Clelland, editor, The Calcutta Journal of Natural History: […], volume III, number IX, Calcutta, West Bengal: W. Risdale, Bishop’s College Press, →OCLC, page 34:
- These [black-eared flying foxes (Pteropus melanotus, formerly edulis)] I have now in captivity (five in number) are fed on goolars, (Ficus glomerata), which they chew in the manner above mentioned, until they have extracted all the juice, when the remaining pulp is ejected out of the mouth.
- 1843, C[harles] J[ames] C. Davidson, Diary of Travels and Adventures in Upper India, […], volume I, London: Henry Colburn, […], →OCLC, pages 244–245:
- Conceive a large and beautiful sheet of calm, clear, and silvery water, [...] embanked with huge blocks of cut granite, embrowned by the shade of magnificent burgots, goolars, jâmuns, and peepuls, under which bright, small Hindoo temples, carefully white-washed, might be seen in their shade; [...]
- 1878, “Maori” [pseudonym; James Inglis], chapter VI, in Sport and Work on the Nepaul Frontier: Or Twelve Years Sporting Reminiscences of an Indigo Planter, London: Macmillan and Co., →OCLC, page 58:
- I then sat down under a goolar tree, to wait for his appearance. The goolar is a species of fig, and the leaves are much relished by cattle and goats.
- 1906 July, “Some Indian Trees”, in [Prithwis Chandra Ray], editor, The Indian World, volume IV, number 16, Calcutta, West Bengal: […] The Cherry Press, […], →OCLC, page 53:
- The gular (ficus glomerata), the bargad, which is another name for the banyan, and the pakar (ficus venosa) are all members of the fig tribe, the Levites of the forest. The gular yields a larger fruit than the banyan, and is a good deal used as a food. In the extremely hot weather of this year, the writer found that mysterious holes were being dug by night round the roots of a large gular tree in his compound. On inquiring into the cause, he found that the servants were incising the roots to obtain the juice which they said they drank to keep up their strength during the heat. [From The Statesman.]
- 2006, Pradip Krishen, “Jamun-like Leaves”, in Trees of Delhi: A Field Guide, New Delhi: Dorling Kindersley (India), →ISBN, pages 56–57:
- [page 56] Goolar Ficus racemosa [...] Widely distributed especially near water, the goolar qualifies as a native Delhi tree. [...] [page 57] According to folk wisdom, there runs a hidden stream under every goolar tree. This is not unfounded – the goolar is a 'riparian' tree, growing naturally near streams or ponds in moist, clayey loams.
- 2009 November, Sujit Saraf, The Confession of Sultana Daku, New Delhi: Hamish Hamilton, →ISBN, page 194:
- Carpet Sahib had picked up our trail, and the police would follow us all the way through the gular trees, to guess where we were headed.
- 2017, G. Singh, “Sacred Places, Trees and Groves: An Overview”, in Sacred Groves of Rajasthan: Threats and Management Strategies, Jodhpur, Rajasthan; New Delhi: […] [F]or Arid Forest Research Institute by Scientific Publishers (India), →ISBN, page 23:
- Many of the trees of different species have special associations with particular deities. For example, the Lord Vishnu is associated with the ‘Pipal’ (Ficus religiosa), ‘Bargad’ (Ficus benghalensis), and ‘Gular’ (Ficus glomerata); [...] the Lord Dattatreya with ‘Gular’ (Ficus glomerata); [...]
Ficus racemosa — See also translations at cluster fig
- ^ “gular, adj. (and n.)”, in OED Online , Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, 1900; “gular, adj.”, in Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press, 2019–2022.
- Ficus racemosa on Wikipedia.Wikipedia
- gular (disambiguation) on Wikipedia.Wikipedia
- inflection of gulur:
gular (plural gulares)
- “gular”, in Diccionario de la lengua española, Vigésima tercera edición, Real Academia Española, 2014
- English terms derived from Proto-Indo-European
- English terms derived from the Proto-Indo-European root *gʷel-
- English terms suffixed with -ar
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- en:Fig trees
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