in

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SQUARE IN

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Contents

English[edit]

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Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English in, from Old English in, from Proto-Germanic *in (whence German in, Dutch in, Danish and Norwegian i), from Proto-Indo-European *h₁én, whence also Latin in, Irish i, Welsh yn, Ancient Greek ἐν (en) (modern Greek εν (en)), Old Armenian ի (i), Old Church Slavonic въ(н) (vŭ(n)), Russian в (v), Old Prussian en, Lithuanian į.

Preposition[edit]

A green pepper in a black rectangle.
A dog in a sink.

in

  1. Used to indicate location, inclusion, or position within spatial, temporal or other limits.
    1. Contained by.
      The dog is in the kennel.
    2. Within.
    3. Surrounded by.
      We are in the enemy camp.   Her plane is in the air.
    4. Part of; a member of.
      One in a million.   She's in band and orchestra.
    5. Pertaining to; with regard to.
      What grade did he get in English?
      Military letters should be formal in tone, but not stilted.
    6. At the end of a period of time.
      They said they would call us in a week.
    7. Within a certain elapsed time
      Are you able to finish this in three hours?   The massacre resulted in over 1000 deaths in three hours.
    8. During (said of periods of time).
      in the first week of December;  Easter falls in the fourth lunar month;   The country reached a high level of prosperity in his first term.
    9. (grammar, phonetics, of sounds and letters) Coming at the end of a word.
      English nouns in -ce form their plurals in -s.
  2. Into.
    • 2011 January 8, Paul Fletcher, “Stevenage 3-1 Newcastle”, in BBC:
      The ball was accidentally kicked in Kevin Nolan's face in the opening seconds of the contest - an incident that set the tone for an extremely uncomfortable encounter for the Premier League side.
    Less water gets in your boots this way.
  3. Used to indicate limit, qualification, condition, or circumstance.
    • 1898, J. Meade Falkner, Moonfleet Chapter 4
      In returning to the vault, I had no very sure purpose in mind; only a vague surmise that this finding of Blackbeard's coffin would somehow lead to the finding of his treasure.
    In replacing the faucet washers, he felt he was making his contribution to the environment.
    1. Indicating an order or arrangement.
      My fat rolls around in folds.
    2. Denoting a state of the subject.
      He stalked away in anger.   John is in a coma.
    3. Indicates, connotatively, a place-like form of someone's (or something's) personality, as his, her or its psychic and physical characteristics.
      You've got a friend in me.   He's met his match in her.
    4. Wearing (an item of clothing).
      I glanced over at the pretty girl in the red dress.
  4. Used to indicate means, medium, format, genre, or instrumentality.
    1. (of something offered or given in an exchange) In the form of, in the denomination of.
      Please pay me in cash — preferably in tens and twenties.
      The deposit can be in any legal tender, even in gold.
      Her generosity was rewarded in the success of its recipients.
      • 2014, Carla Bethmann, Clean, Friendly, Profitable?: Tourism, page 114:
        [] tourists sometimes attempt to pay in euros or British pounds.
    2. Used to indicate a language, script, tone, etc. of a text, speech, etc.
      Beethoven's "Symphony No. 5" in C minor is among his most popular.
      His speech was in French, but was simultaneously translated into eight languages.
      When you write in cursive, it's illegible.
Hyponyms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]
Related terms[edit]
Translations[edit]
The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout#Translations.

Verb[edit]

in (third-person singular simple present ins, present participle inning, simple past and past participle inned)

  1. (obsolete, transitive) To enclose.
  2. (obsolete, transitive) To take in; to harvest.
    • (Can we date this quote?) Shakespeare
      He that ears my land spares my team and gives me leave to in the crop.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle English in, from Old English inne.

Adverb[edit]

in (not comparable)

  1. (not comparable) Located indoors, especially at home or the office, or inside something.
    Is Mr. Smith in?
  2. Moving to the interior of a defined space, such as a building or room.
    Suddenly a strange man walked in.
    • 1879, R[ichard] J[efferies], chapter II, in The Amateur Poacher, London: Smith, Elder, & Co., [], OCLC 752825175, page 071:
      Orion hit a rabbit once; but though sore wounded it got to the bury, and, struggling in, the arrow caught the side of the hole and was drawn out. Indeed, a nail filed sharp is not of much avail as an arrowhead; you must have it barbed, and that was a little beyond our skill.
  3. (sports) Still eligible to play, e.g. able to bat in cricket and baseball.
    He went for the wild toss but wasn't able to stay in.
  4. (Britain) Abbreviation of in aid of.
    What's that in?
  5. After the beginning of something.
    • 2011 October 1, Phil Dawkes, “Sunderland 2-2 West Brom”, in BBC Sport:
      The Black Cats had a mountain to climb after James Morrison's header and Shane Long's neat side-foot finish gave Albion a 2-0 lead five minutes in.
Translations[edit]
The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout#Translations.

Noun[edit]

in (plural ins)

  1. A position of power or a way to get it.
    His parents got him an in with the company
  2. (sports) The state of a batter/batsman who is currently batting – see innings
  3. A re-entrant angle; a nook or corner.
Antonyms[edit]
Translations[edit]

Adjective[edit]

in (comparative more in, superlative most in)

  1. In fashion; popular.
    Skirts are in this year.
  2. Incoming.
    the in train
  3. (nautical, of the sails of a vessel) Furled or stowed.
  4. (law) With privilege or possession; used to denote a holding, possession, or seisin.
    in by descent; in by purchase; in of the seisin of her husband
    (Can we find and add a quotation of Burrill to this entry?)
  5. (cricket) Currently batting.
Translations[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Abbreviation of inch.

Noun[edit]

in (plural ins)

  1. Inch.

References[edit]

  • Andrea Tyler and Vyvyan Evans, "Bounded landmarks", in The Semantics of English Prepositions: Spatial Scenes, Embodied Meaning and Cognition, Cambridge University Press, 2003, 0-521-81430 8

Anagrams[edit]


Afrikaans[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Dutch in.

Adverb[edit]

in

  1. in; inside; within

Preposition[edit]

in

  1. in
  2. into

Ayomán[edit]

Noun[edit]

in

  1. water

References[edit]

  • Luis Oramas, Materiales para el estudio de los dialectos Ayamán, Gayón, Jirajara, Ajagua (1916)

Baure[edit]

Noun[edit]

in

  1. water

References[edit]

  • Swintha Danielsen, Baure: An Arawak Language of Bolivia

Chinese[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of in – see 𪜶 (“they, them; their, theirs; etc.”).
(This character, in, is the Pe̍h-ōe-jī form of 𪜶.)

Chuukese[edit]

Noun[edit]

in

  1. mother

Classical Nahuatl[edit]

Article[edit]

in

  1. the

Pronoun[edit]

in, īn

  1. (demonstrative) this; these

Related terms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • Michel Launey; Christopher Mackay (2011) An Introduction to Classical Nahuatl, Amazon Kindle: Cambridge University Press, pages Loc 1408

Danish[edit]

Adjective[edit]

in (neuter in, plural and definite singular attributive in)

  1. (colloquial) fashionable, in

Antonyms[edit]


Dutch[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Dutch in, from Proto-Germanic *in, from Proto-Indo-European *en.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adverb[edit]

in

  1. in, inside
  2. (postpositional) into
    De jongen rende het huis in.
    The boy ran into the house.

Preposition[edit]

in

  1. in; expressing containment.
    De geest in de fles
    the genie in the bottle

Inflection[edit]

Synonyms[edit]

Antonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Adjective[edit]

in (used only predicatively, not comparable)

  1. in style

Verb[edit]

in

  1. first-person singular present indicative of innen
  2. imperative of innen

Emilian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin inde (thence). Cognate with Catalan en, French en, Italian ne.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /in/
  • Hyphenation: in

Pronoun[edit]

in (adverbial)

  1. (genitive case) of it, of them
    Vô-t di pām? A t’in dāg dû.
    Do you want some apples? I will give you two (of them).
  2. (genitive case) about it, about them
    A t’in avîva descòurs ajêr.
    I talked to you about it yesterday.
  3. (ablative case) from here
    A sòun stùf, a m’in vāg.
    I am tired, I am leaving (from here).

Alternative forms[edit]

  • Becomes n- before a vowel (proclitic).
A-g n-ò dimándi.I have a lot (of them).
  • Becomes -en when acting as an enclitic (after a consonant).
Mānjen un pōk!Eat some of it! (imperative, singular)
  • Becomes -n when acting as an enclitic (after a vowel).
Manjēn un pōk!Eat some of it! (imperative, plural)

Friulian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin in, from Proto-Italic *en, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁én (in).

Preposition[edit]

in

  1. in

German[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old High German in, from Proto-Germanic *in, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁én.

Preposition[edit]

in

  1. (with dative) in, within, at, to, (contained by; within)
    Es ist im Haus.It is in the house.
  2. (with dative) in (pertaining to)
  3. (with dative) in (at the end of or during a period of time)
  4. (with accusative) into (going inside (of))
    Er geht ins Haus.He goes into the house.
Usage notes[edit]

The preposition in is used with accusative case if the verb shows movement from one place to another, whereas it is used with dative case if the verb shows location.

Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Borrowed from English in.

Adjective[edit]

in (not comparable)

  1. in, popular (in fashion)
Declension[edit]

Gothic[edit]

Romanization[edit]

in

  1. Romanization of 𐌹𐌽

Interlingua[edit]

Preposition[edit]

in

  1. in

Irish[edit]

Preposition[edit]

in (plus dative, triggers eclipsis)

  1. Alternative form of i

Usage notes[edit]

This variant of i is used before vowel-initial words, before bhur (your pl), before dhá (two), before titles of books, films, and the like, and before foreign words that resist mutation.

In older texts, the n is spelled together with a vowel-initial word (e.g. i n-aice le instead of modern in aice le (beside) and i nÉirinn or i n-Éirinn instead of modern in Éirinn (in Ireland). Also in older texts, in bhur may be spelled i nbhur.


Istriot[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin in.

Preposition[edit]

in

  1. in; on
    • 1877, Antonio Ive, Canti popolari istriani: raccolti a Rovigno, volume 5, Ermanno Loescher, page 99:
      Cume li va puleîto in alto mare!
      How they row well on the high seas!

Italian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin in, from Old Latin en, from Proto-Italic *en, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁én (in).

Pronunciation[edit]

Preposition[edit]

in

  1. in
    Ho qualcosa in tasca.I have got something in my pocket.
    Partirò in primavera.I will be leaving in spring.
    Vado in quinta elementare.I'm in fifth grade of elementary school.
  2. to
    Sono andato in panetteria.I went to the bakery.
    Vado in quinta elementare.I go to fifth grade of elementary school.
  3. into
  4. by
    Vado a scuola in autobus.I go to school by bus.
  5. on
    Ho messo un cappello in testa.I put a hat on my head.
    Metti il pane in tavola.Put the bread on the table.

Usage notes[edit]

  • When followed by the definite article, in is combined with the article to produce the following combined forms:
in + article Combined form
in + il nel
in + lo nello
in + l' nell'
in + i nei
in + gli negli
in + la nella
in + le nelle

Anagrams[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Romanization[edit]

in

  1. Rōmaji transcription of いん

Ladin[edit]

Preposition[edit]

in

  1. in

Latin[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Latin en, from Proto-Italic *en, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁én (in). Cognates include Ancient Greek ἐν (en), Old Prussian en and Old English in (English in).

Pronunciation[edit]

Preposition[edit]

in

  1. (+ ablative) in, at, on (space)
    • 29 bc. Vergil. Georgics, III
      omne adeo genvs in terris hominvmqve ferarvmqve
      et genvs æqvorevm pecvdes pictæqve volvcres
      in fvrias ignemqve rvvnt
      So far does every species on earth of man and beast,
      whether the aquatic species, livestock, or painted-winged,
      collapse into the frenzies and the fire.
  2. (+ dative) within (time)
  3. (+ accusative) into, to
    • 29 bc. Vergil. Georgics, III
      omne adeo genvs in terris hominvmqve ferarvmqve
      et genvs æqvorevm pecvdes pictæqve volvcres
      in fvrias ignemqve rvvnt
      So far does every species on earth of man and beast,
      whether the aquatic species, livestock, or painted-winged,
      collapse into the frenzies and the fire.
    • 1774, Finnur Jónsson, Historia Ecclesiastica Islandiæ 1
      De introductione religionis Christianæ in Islandiam.
      On the introduction of Christianity to Iceland.
  4. (+ accusative) about
  5. (+ accusative) according to
  6. (+ accusative) against

Antonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Aromanian: ãn
  • Catalan: en
  • Dalmatian: en
  • Franco-Provençal: en
  • French: en
  • Friulian: in
  • Italian: in
  • Occitan: en
  • Portuguese: em
  • Romanian: în
  • Romansch: en
  • Sicilian: n
  • Spanish: en

Quotations[edit]


Ligurian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Latin in, from Old Latin en, from Proto-Italic *en, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁én (in).

Pronunciation[edit]

Preposition[edit]

in

  1. in
in + article Combined form
in + o ne-o
in + a ne-a
in + i ne-i
in + e ne-e
Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

With iotacism, from un (a, an, indefinite article).

Pronunciation[edit]

Article[edit]

in

  1. a, an (male)
Usage notes[edit]
  • This form is found:
    • in sentence-initial position, or after a punctuation mark
    • after words ending in /ŋ/

Mapudungun[edit]

Etymology[edit]

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions. You can also discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.

Pronunciation[edit]

Phonetik.svg This entry needs pronunciation information. If you are familiar with the IPA then please add some!

Verb[edit]

in (using Raguileo Alphabet)

  1. To eat.
  2. First-person singular realis mood form of in.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Wixaleyiñ: Mapucezugun-wigkazugun pici hemvlcijka (Wixaleyiñ: Small Mapudungun-Spanish dictionary), Beretta, Marta; Cañumil, Dario; Cañumil, Tulio, 2008.

Middle Dutch[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Dutch in, from Proto-Germanic *in.

Preposition[edit]

in [+accusative or dative]

  1. in, inside, within
  2. into
  3. within (a time period)
  4. in (a condition)
Descendants[edit]
  • Dutch: in
  • Limburgish: in

Etymology 2[edit]

See the etymology of the main entry.

Contraction[edit]

in

  1. Contraction of ic ne.

Further reading[edit]

  • in”, in Vroegmiddelnederlands Woordenboek, 2000
  • in (VI)”, in Middelnederlandsch Woordenboek, 1929

Middle English[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old English inn.

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

in (plural innes)

  1. Any kind of accomodation; particularly:
    1. A holiday home or guesthouse; a house set up as accomodation.
    2. An inn or hostel; a building with multiple rooms to let.
    3. A camp used by an army; barracks.
  2. A home or house; habitation or housing one lives in.
  3. A dormitory; housing for students.
Descendants[edit]
References[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old English in, from Proto-Germanic *in, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁én.

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /in/, /iː/, /i/, /ən/

Preposition[edit]

in

  1. in; with the following special senses:
    1. in, inside; encircled or confined by, with the following special senses:
      1. inside, within (a text or document)
      2. inside, within (one's mind)
      3. inside, in, indoors of.
      4. amongst, in a crowd of.
    2. wearing, having on, clad in
    3. in a quality or mode: with the following special senses:
      1. affected by, under the influence of.
      2. held by someone, in someone's grasp
      3. owned by someone, in someone's control
    4. inside, at or on a location or place.
    5. secured with; bound with
    6. in the midst of, while, currently doing
    7. in (pieces or portions), into.
    8. about; of, on the matter of.
  2. in the form, way, or manner of.
  3. on, above, on top of.
  4. facing at, in the direction of.
  5. Being one of a set or group.
  6. Being owned by; in one's possession.
  7. due to, as, for the reason that.
  8. versus; in conflict with; fighting with.
  9. using, utilising, with the means of.
  10. (rare) with, in the company of.
Usage notes[edit]

in is usually postpositive in Middle English. For example, the previous sentence would be in is after þe noun lome Middel Englisch in.

Related terms[edit]
Descendants[edit]
References[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

From Old English inne, from Proto-Germanic *inna.

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Adverb[edit]

in

  1. in; with the following special senses:
    1. in, inside; encircled or confined by.
    2. inside, in, in the centre of.
    3. in a quality or mode.
  2. in towards, in the direction of.
  3. on, on top of; above
  4. using, utilising, with the means of.
Descendants[edit]
  • English: in
  • Scots: in
References[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

in

  1. Alternative form of hine

References[edit]


Mohegan-Pequot[edit]

Noun[edit]

in

  1. man (adult male)

References[edit]

  • A Vocabulary of Mohegan-Pequot (John D. Prince, Frank G. Speck)

Northern Sami[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

in

  1. first-person singular present of ii

Novial[edit]

Preposition[edit]

in

  1. in

Old English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *in, whence also Old Saxon and Old High German in, Old Norse í. Ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *h₁én.

Pronunciation[edit]

Preposition[edit]

in

  1. (Anglian) in

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Middle English: in
    • English: in
    • Scots: in

Old High German[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *in, whence also Old English in, Old Norse í. Ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *h₁én.

Preposition[edit]

in

  1. in

Descendants[edit]

  • German: in

Old Irish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Celtic *sindos (this), from Proto-Indo-European *sḗm (one) or *só (this); weak doublet of sin (this).

Article[edit]

in

  1. the (masculine singular nominative/accusative; feminine singular accusative; masculine/feminine/neuter dual nominative/accusative/genitive)
    • c. 800, Würzburg Glosses on the Pauline Epistles, published in Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus (reprinted 1987, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies), edited and with translations by Whitley Stokes and John Strachan, vol. I, pp. 499–712, Wb. 13d7
      Beóigidir in spirut in corp in ḟect so.
      "The spirit now quickens the body."
  2. Alternative spelling of ind
    • c. 800, Würzburg Glosses on the Pauline Epistles, published in Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus (reprinted 1987, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies), edited and with translations by Whitley Stokes and John Strachan, vol. I, pp. 499–712, Wb. 13d7
      Beóigidir in spirut in corp in ḟect so.
      "The spirit now quickens the body."
Usage notes[edit]
  • Triggers nasalization of the following noun in the masculine and feminine singular accusative.
  • Triggers lenition of the following noun as an alternative spelling of ind.
Declension[edit]
Case Singular Dual Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative in
int (before vowels)
ind
int (before )
a in in in ind inna
Accusative in inna
Genitive ind
int (before )
inna ind
int (before )
in
Dative dond; dont (before )
cossind; cossint (before )
etc.
don dib
cossin dib
etc.
donaib
cosnaib
etc.
Note: The dative is used only after a preposition, which forms a contraction with the definite article, e.g. dond (to the), cossind (with the), etc.
Synonyms[edit]
  • int (masculine singular nominative, used before a vowel)
Derived terms[edit]
Descendants[edit]
  • Irish: an
  • Scottish Gaelic: an
  • Manx: yn

Etymology 2[edit]

Particle[edit]

in (triggers eclipsis)

  1. interrogative particle

Verb[edit]

in (triggers eclipsis)

  1. (interrogative) is...?
Related terms[edit]

Old Saxon[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *in, whence also Old High German in, Old English in, Old Norse í. Ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *h₁én.

Preposition[edit]

in

  1. in

Pennsylvania German[edit]

Preposition[edit]

in

  1. in

Portuguese[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Borrowed from Latin in (in). Doublet of em.

Preposition[edit]

in

  1. found in the given reference
Related terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Borrowed from English in.

Adjective[edit]

in (invariable, comparable)

  1. in fashion
Synonyms[edit]

Romanian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Latin līnum (flax), from Proto-Indo-European *līno-.

Noun[edit]

in n (plural inuri)

  1. flax

Declension[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Misspelling of în


Romansch[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (Sutsilvan, Surmiran) egn
  • (Puter, Vallader) ün

Etymology[edit]

From Latin ūnus.

Article[edit]

in m (feminine ina)

  1. (cardinal, Rumantsch Grischun, Sursilvan) a, an

Number[edit]

in m (feminine ina)

  1. (cardinal, Rumantsch Grischun, Sursilvan) one

Slovene[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *i (from Proto-Indo-European *éy) and an emphasising particle *no.

Pronunciation[edit]

Conjunction[edit]

in

  1. and

Synonyms[edit]

  • i (dialectal)

Swedish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Adverb[edit]

in

  1. into, the direction "from out to in"

Antonyms[edit]

See also[edit]


Turkish[edit]

Noun[edit]

in (definite accusative ini, plural inler)

  1. cave

Declension[edit]

Inflection
Nominative in
Definite accusative ini
Singular Plural
Nominative in inler
Definite accusative ini inleri
Dative ine inlere
Locative inde inlerde
Ablative inden inlerden
Genitive inin inlerin
Possessive forms
Singular Plural
1st singular inim inlerim
2nd singular inin inlerin
3rd singular ini inleri
1st plural inimiz inlerimiz
2nd plural ininiz inleriniz
3rd plural inleri inleri

Verb[edit]

in

  1. second-person singular imperative of inmek

Vietnamese[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Non-Sino-Vietnamese reading of Chinese (“to print”; SV: ấn).

Verb[edit]

in

  1. to print

Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Adjective[edit]

in

  1. (only in compounds) perfectly fitted
Derived terms[edit]

Volapük[edit]

Preposition[edit]

in

  1. in

Welsh[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

in

  1. (literary) first-person plural of i

West Frisian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Shortened from ien (one).

Article[edit]

in

  1. a, an