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From Proto-Italic *enðeros, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁n̥dʰér-o-s, from *h₁n̥dʰér. Cognate with English under, Sanskrit अधर (ádhara). *ð>f is irregular in word-internal position and is either explained as (Faliscan) dialectal influence or by assuming metanalysis as a compound with in.



īnferus (feminine īnfera, neuter īnferum, comparative īnferior, superlative īnfimus or īmus); first/second-declension adjective

  1. low
  2. (in the masculine plural) the souls of the dead
  3. (in the neuter plural) the netherworld, the underworld, Hell


First/second-declension adjective.

Number Singular Plural
Case / Gender Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative īnferus īnfera īnferum īnferī īnferae īnfera
Genitive īnferī īnferae īnferī īnferōrum īnferārum īnferōrum
Dative īnferō īnferō īnferīs
Accusative īnferum īnferam īnferum īnferōs īnferās īnfera
Ablative īnferō īnferā īnferō īnferīs
Vocative īnfere īnfera īnferum īnferī īnferae īnfera

Derived terms[edit]


  • English: inferior
  • French: inférieur
  • Italian: infero
  • Portuguese: inferior
  • Spanish: inferior


  • inferus in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • inferus in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • inferus in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré Latin-Français, Hachette
  • Carl Meissner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • (ambiguous) the gods of the upper, lower world: superi; inferi
    • (ambiguous) the world below: inferi (Orcus and Tartarus only poetical)
    • (ambiguous) to descend to the world below: ad inferos descendere
    • (ambiguous) to be in the lower world: apud inferos esse
    • (ambiguous) to summon some one from the dead: aliquem ab inferis or a mortuis evocare, excitare (passive ab inferis exsistere)