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- (grammar) A noun case used to express means or agency—and is generally indicated in English by by or with with the objective. Languages that use the instrumental case include Armenian, Serbo-Croatian, Czech, Dyirbal, Georgian, Latvian, Slovene, Polish, Quechua, Russian, Assamese and Sanskrit. Extinct languages that used the instrumental case include Old English, Old Saxon and Old High German.
case to express agency or means