Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search


Alternative forms[edit]


From Old Latin ioubeō, from Proto-Italic *jouðejō, from Proto-Indo-European *Hyowdʰ-éye-ti, from Proto-Indo-European *Hyewdʰ-. Thus cognate with iūs and perhaps including the same elements of later iūstificō.



iubeō (present infinitive iubēre, perfect active iussī, supine iussum); second conjugation

  1. (Old Latin, Classical Latin) to authorize, to legitimate, to make lawful, to homologate, to pass (a bill or law)
    • c. 200 BCE, Plautus, Menaechmi 1028–1030:
      MESS. Sic sine igitur, si tuom negas me esse, abire liberum.
      MEN. Mea quidem hercle causa liber esto atque ito quo voles.
      MESS. Nempe iubes?
      MEN. Iubeo hercle, si quid imperi est in te mihi.
      MESS. Very well then, sir, if you say I'm not yours, let me go free.
      MEN. Lord, man, be free so far as I am concerned, and go where you like.
      MESS. Those are your orders, really?
      MEN. Lord, yes I order it, if I have any authority over you.
  2. to bid, to command, to order
    Cūr nōn illam hūc trānsferrī iubēs?
    Why don't you command her to be brought over hither?
    Synonym: imperō


   Conjugation of iubeō (second conjugation)
indicative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present iubeō iubēs iubet iubēmus iubētis iubent
imperfect iubēbam iubēbās iubēbat iubēbāmus iubēbātis iubēbant
future iubēbō iubēbis iubēbit iubēbimus iubēbitis iubēbunt
perfect iussī iussistī iussit iussimus iussistis iussērunt, iussēre
pluperfect iusseram iusserās iusserat iusserāmus iusserātis iusserant
future perfect iusserō iusseris iusserit iusserimus iusseritis iusserint
passive present iubeor iubēris, iubēre iubētur iubēmur iubēminī iubentur
imperfect iubēbar iubēbāris, iubēbāre iubēbātur iubēbāmur iubēbāminī iubēbantur
future iubēbor iubēberis, iubēbere iubēbitur iubēbimur iubēbiminī iubēbuntur
perfect iussus + present active indicative of sum
pluperfect iussus + imperfect active indicative of sum
future perfect iussus + future active indicative of sum
subjunctive singular plural
first second third first second third
active present iubeam iubeās iubeat iubeāmus iubeātis iubeant
imperfect iubērem iubērēs iubēret iubērēmus iubērētis iubērent
perfect iusserim iusserīs iusserit iusserīmus iusserītis iusserint
pluperfect iussissem iussissēs iussisset iussissēmus iussissētis iussissent
passive present iubear iubeāris, iubeāre iubeātur iubeāmur iubeāminī iubeantur
imperfect iubērer iubērēris, iubērēre iubērētur iubērēmur iubērēminī iubērentur
perfect iussus + present active subjunctive of sum
pluperfect iussus + imperfect active subjunctive of sum
imperative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present iubē iubēte
future iubētō iubētō iubētōte iubentō
passive present iubēre iubēminī
future iubētor iubētor iubentor
non-finite forms active passive
present perfect future present perfect future
infinitives iubēre iussisse iussūrum esse iubērī iussum esse iussum īrī
participles iubēns iussūrus iussus iubendus
verbal nouns gerund supine
genitive dative accusative ablative accusative ablative
iubendī iubendō iubendum iubendō iussum iussū


Derived terms[edit]


  • De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7)‎[1], Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN
  • iubeo in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • iubeo in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré Latin-Français, Hachette
  • Carl Meißner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[2], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • he is a young man of great promise: adulescens alios bene de se sperare iubet, bonam spem ostendit or alii de adulescente bene sperare possunt
    • to let those present fix any subject they like for discussion: ponere iubere, qua de re quis audire velit (Fin. 2. 1. 1)
    • to greet a person: aliquem salvere iubere (Att. 4. 14)
    • I bid you good-bye, take my leave: te valere iubeo
    • to separate from, divorce (of the man): aliquam suas res sibi habere iubere (Phil. 2. 28. 69)
    • to reject a bill: legem antiquare (opp. accipere, iubere)
    • to ratify a law (used of the people): legem iubere
    • to declare a law valid: legem ratam esse iubere
    • the law orders, forbids (expressly, distinctly): lex iubet, vetat (dilucide, planissime)
    • to banish a man from his native land: e patria exire iubere aliquem
    • the senate decreed (and the people ratified the decree) that..: senatus decrevit (populusque iussit) ut
    • good luck to you: macte virtute (esto or te esse iubeo)
  • Willi, Andreas (2001), “Lateinisch iubēre, griechisch εὐϑύς und ein indogermanisches Rechtskonzept”, in Historische Sprachforschung (in German), volume 114, issue 1. H., DOI:10.2307/41289052, pages 117–146