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bovēs cum iugō (oxen with yoke)

Alternative forms[edit]


From Proto-Italic *jugom, from Proto-Indo-European *yugóm.



iugum n (genitive iugī); second declension

  1. yoke (for oxen) or collar (for a horse)
  2. (by extension) a team of oxen
  3. beam or rail fastened perpendicular to a post
  4. a makeshift archway of three spears under which a vanquished enemy was made to pass in humiliation
  5. Libra (constellation)
  6. (nautical) rower's bench
  7. summit or ridge of a mountain
  8. (figuratively) bond (of slavery, matrimony, etc.)


Second declension.

Case Singular Plural
Nominative iugum iuga
Genitive iugī iugōrum
Dative iugō iugīs
Accusative iugum iuga
Ablative iugō iugīs
Vocative iugum iuga

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]



  • iugum in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • iugum in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • iugum in Charles du Fresne du Cange’s Glossarium Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (augmented edition, 1883–1887)
  • iugum in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire Illustré Latin-Français, Hachette
  • Carl Meissner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • to submit to the yoke of slavery: iugum servitutis accipere
    • to shake off the yoke of slavery: iugum servitutis excutere
    • to shake off the yoke of slavery: iugum servile a cervicibus deicere (Phil. 1. 2. 6)
    • to deliver some one from slavery: iugum servile alicui demere
    • to deliver some one from slavery: ab aliquo servitutem or servitutis iugum depellere
    • (ambiguous) a perpetual spring: aqua iugis, perennis
  • iugum in Harry Thurston Peck, editor (1898) Harper's Dictionary of Classical Antiquities, New York: Harper & Brothers