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bovēs cum iugō (oxen with yoke)

Alternative forms[edit]


From Proto-Italic *jugom, from Proto-Indo-European *yugóm.



iugum n (genitive iugī); second declension

  1. yoke (for oxen) or collar (for a horse)
  2. (by extension) a team of oxen
  3. beam or rail fastened perpendicular to a post
  4. a makeshift archway of three spears under which a vanquished enemy was made to pass in humiliation
  5. Libra (constellation)
  6. rower's bench
  7. summit or ridge of a mountain
  8. (figuratively) bond (of slavery, matrimony, etc.)


Second-declension noun (neuter).

Case Singular Plural
Nominative iugum iuga
Genitive iugī iugōrum
Dative iugō iugīs
Accusative iugum iuga
Ablative iugō iugīs
Vocative iugum iuga

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]



  • iugum in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • iugum in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • iugum in Charles du Fresne du Cange’s Glossarium Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (augmented edition, 1883–1887)
  • iugum in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire Illustré Latin-Français, Hachette
  • Carl Meissner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • to submit to the yoke of slavery: iugum servitutis accipere
    • to shake off the yoke of slavery: iugum servitutis excutere
    • to shake off the yoke of slavery: iugum servile a cervicibus deicere (Phil. 1. 2. 6)
    • to deliver some one from slavery: iugum servile alicui demere
    • to deliver some one from slavery: ab aliquo servitutem or servitutis iugum depellere
    • (ambiguous) a perpetual spring: aqua iugis, perennis
  • iugum in Harry Thurston Peck, editor (1898) Harper's Dictionary of Classical Antiquities, New York: Harper & Brothers