mund

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search
See also: Mund and mund'

English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old English mund, from Proto-Germanic *mundō (hand, protection, security).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

mund (countable and uncountable, plural munds)

  1. (obsolete) A hand.
  2. (obsolete) Security, granted by a king or earl, the violation of which was punished by a fine (a mundbyrd).
  3. (obsolete) Protection; guardianship.

Derived terms[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Albanian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Probably from Proto-Indo-European *mendh (to pay attention to, be vivacious). Compare Old Norse munda (aim, strive), Gothic 𐌼𐌿𐌽𐌳𐍉𐌽 (mundōn, look up), Old High German muntar (keen, eager), Ancient Greek μανθάνω (manthánō, learn), Lithuanian mañdras (alert, awake, smart, minxish).

Standard/Tosk variant of Gheg Albanian mûn(d); [d]-sound lost among majority Gheg dialects due to nasal vowels (which do not exist in Tosk).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

  • mund m (indefinite plural -, definite singular mundi) (Standard)
  • mûn(d) m (indefinite plural -, definite singular mûn(d)i) (Gheg)
  1. agony, toil, great effort
  2. arduous and hard work (that pays off)
  3. tribulation, cause of trouble or suffer

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Cognate to Arvanitic / Arbëresh Albanian múndënj[1] and Gheg Albanian mûj. Lost [nd]-cluster among majority Gheg dialects (due to nasal vowels), while the [d]-sound in Tosk participle mundur shifted to a [t] in Gheg mûjt. Either from Proto-Indo-European *meHndʰ- (to pay attention, wisdom) or Proto-Indo-European *magʰ- (can, to be able (to do)). Alternatively from Proto-Indo-European *men(s)-dʰ(e)h₂ (to learn).

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb 1[edit]

  • (active) mund (first-person singular past tense munda, participle mundur)[9]
  • (active) mûj (first-person singular past tense mûjta, participle mûjt(un)) (Gheg)
  1. (active, intransitive) I can, I am able; I have the opportunity, power or ability
  2. (active) I beat, I win over, I conquer
  3. (active) (grammatical particle used for conjunctive forms + )
    A mund të më tregoni shtëpinë?
    Could you show me the house?
  4. (active, 3rd person) could be possible; possibly, maybe, perhaps (used as a semi-auxiliary verb + )
  5. (active, 3rd person, negatory) unable/impossible + to (in combination with negatory s, s', nuk (but not with mos) + (to))
  • (passive) múndem (first-person singular past tense u munda, participle mundur)[10]
  • (passive) mûjhna (first-person singular past tense u mûjta, participle mûjt(un)) (Gheg)
  1. (passive, reflexive) I can no longer, I can't; I am not able, impossible for me
  2. (passive) maybe, perhaps, it could, so it be (as a particle)
    Synonyms: mbase, ndoshta, vaki

Verb 2[edit]

  • (active) mund (first-person singular past tense munda, participle mundur)[11]
  • (active) mûj (first-person singular past tense u mûjta, participle mûjt(un)) (Gheg)
  1. (active, transitive) I defeat, beat (someone); I emerge victorious (in a match, battle)
  2. (active) I survive, get over, beat (a fear, illness, disease)
  3. (active, figurative, 3rd person) (+ short pronoun forms) put down, take away/over (force, power, ability, etc.)
    Më mundi gjumi.
    The sleep took over me
  • (passive) múndem (first-person singular past tense u munda, participle mundur)[12]
  • (passive) mûjhna (first-person singular past tense u mûjta, participle mûjt(un)) (Gheg)
  1. (passive, reflexive) wrestle, fight or encounter with someone
    Synonyms: luftoj, rrok, kap
  2. (passive) I try to get over (it) (ache, pain, heartbreak, grief, hard work, etc.)
    Synonyms: mundoj, provoj

Conjugation[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • [6] noun mund (definite/sg. form mundi) • Fjalor Shqip (Albanian Dictionary)
  • Oda Buchholz, Wilfried Fiedler, Gerda Uhlisch (2000) Langenscheidt Handwörterbuch Albanisch, Langenscheidt Verlag, →ISBN, page 335 (noun mund / verb mund (14))

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bardhyl Demiraj, Peter Dayan (1997) Albanische Etymologien: Untersuchungen zum albanischen Erbwortschatz (Albanian Etymologies: Studies on the Albanian hereditary vocabulary), Editions Rodopi B.V., Amsterdam - Atlanta GA, →ISBN, page 281, 460, 452
  2. ^ Gustav Meyer (1892) Albanesische Studien III. Lautlehre des indogermanischen Bestandteile des Albanesischen, Carl Gerold's Sohn, page 64, 80
  3. ^ Gustav Meyer (1891) Etymologisches Wörterbuch der albanesischen Sprache, Trübner, page 291
  4. ^ Jokl, Norbert (1911) Studien zur albanesischen Etymologie und Wortbildung (Sitzungsberichte der Philosophisch-Historischen Classe der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften; 168) (in German), Vienna: A. Hölder, page 58
  5. ^ Eqrem Çabej (1976/1982) Studime etimologjike në fushë të shqipes, Tiranë Akad. e Shkencave e RP të Shqipërisë, Inst. i Gjuhësisë dhe i Letërsisë, →ISBN Invalid ISBN, page 357-358
  6. ^ Demiraj, Bardhyl (1997) Albanische Etymologien: Untersuchungen zum albanischen Erbwortschatz [Albanian Etymologies: Investigations into the Albanian Inherited Lexicon] (Leiden Studies in Indo-European; 7)‎[1] (in German), Amsterdam, Atlanta: Rodopi, page 281-283
  7. ^ Werner Winter (1965) Evidence for Laryngeals, The Hague, Mouton, page 138
  8. ^ Orel, Vladimir (1998) , “mund”, in Albanian Etymological Dictionary, Leiden, Boston, Cologne: Brill, →ISBN, page 277-278
  9. ^ [2] active verb mund (I - intransitive) (aorist munda; participle mundur) • Fjalor Shqip (Albanian Dictionary)
  10. ^ [3] passive verb mundem (múndem) (I - reflexive) (aorist u munda; participle mundur) • Fjalor Shqip (Albanian Dictionary)
  11. ^ [4] active verb mund (II - transitive) (aorist munda; participle mundur) • Fjalor Shqip (Albanian Dictionary)
  12. ^ [5] passive verb mundem (múndem) (II - reflexive) (aorist u munda; participle mundur) • Fjalor Shqip (Albanian Dictionary)

Danish[edit]

mund

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse muðr, munnr, from Proto-Germanic *munþaz, cognate with English mouth, German Mund.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

mund c (singular definite munden, plural indefinite munde)

  1. mouth (the opening of an animal through which food is ingested)

Inflection[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]

Verb[edit]

mund

  1. imperative of munde

Icelandic[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Norse mund, from Proto-Germanic *mundō.

Noun[edit]

mund f (genitive singular mundar, nominative plural mundir)

  1. (poetic) hand
Declension[edit]
Synonyms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Related to Old Norse munda (to aim, to strive), Old High German muntar (keen, eager).

Noun[edit]

mund f (genitive singular mundar, nominative plural mundir) or mund n (genitive singular munds, nominative plural mund)

  1. Used only in set phrases.
Declension[edit]

or

Derived terms[edit]
Related terms[edit]

Middle English[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old English mund, from Proto-Germanic *mundō.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

mund (plural moundes or munden)

  1. Might, ability, or skill.
  2. Magnitude, greatness, utility, or usefulness.
  3. (rare) Protection, guarding, defence
  4. (rare) A hand, especially as a measurement.
  5. (rare) A band of warriors or fighters.

Descendants[edit]

  • English: mound, mund
  • Scots: moond

References[edit]


Norwegian Bokmål[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse muðr, munnr, from Proto-Germanic *munþaz.

Noun[edit]

Norwegian Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia no

mund

  1. mouth

Inflection[edit]

singular plural
indefinite mund munder
definite munden mundene

Old English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *mundō.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

mund f (nominative plural munda or munde)

  1. (poetic) hand
  2. trust, security. protection
  3. protector, guardian

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]


Old French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin mundus.

Noun[edit]

mund m (oblique plural munz or muntz, nominative singular munz or muntz, nominative plural mund)

  1. the world

Old High German[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *munþaz.

Noun[edit]

mund m

  1. (anatomy) mouth

Declension[edit]


Old Norse[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *mundō (hand). Further cognates see there.

Noun[edit]

mund f

  1. hand

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • mund in Geir T. Zoëga (1910) A Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic, Oxford: Clarendon Press

Romansch[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin mundus.

Noun[edit]

mund m (plural munds)

  1. (Rumantsch Grischun, Sursilvan, Sutsilvan) world