mund

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See also: Mund and mund'

English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old English mund, from Proto-Germanic *mundō (hand, protection, security).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

mund (countable and uncountable, plural munds)

  1. (obsolete) A hand.
  2. (obsolete) Security, granted by a king or earl, the violation of which was punished by a fine (a mundbyrd).
  3. (obsolete) Protection; guardianship.

Derived terms[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Albanian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Probably from Proto-Indo-European *mn̥(s)-dʰh₁-. Compare Old Norse munda (aim, strive), Gothic 𐌼𐌿𐌽𐌳𐍉𐌽 (mundōn, look up), Old High German muntar (keen, eager), Ancient Greek μανθάνω (manthánō, learn), Lithuanian mañdras (alert, awake, smart, minxish).

Standard/Tosk variant of Gheg Albanian mûn(d); [d]-sound lost among majority Gheg dialects due to nasal vowels (which do not exist in Tosk).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

  • mund m (indefinite plural -, definite singular mundi) (Standard)
  • mûn(d) m (indefinite plural -, definite singular mûn(d)i) (Gheg)
  1. agony, toil, great effort
  2. arduous and hard work (that pays off)
  3. tribulation, cause of trouble or suffer

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Cognate to Arvanitic / Arbëresh Albanian múndënj[1] and Gheg Albanian mûj. Lost [nd]-cluster among majority Gheg dialects (due to nasal vowels), while the [d]-sound in Tosk participle mundur shifted to a [t] in Gheg mûjt. Either from Proto-Indo-European *meHndʰ- (to pay attention, wisdom) or Proto-Indo-European *magʰ- (can, to be able (to do)). Alternatively from Proto-Indo-European *men(s)-dʰ(e)h₂ (to learn).

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb 1[edit]

  • (active) mund (first-person singular past tense munda, participle mundur)[9]
  • (active) mûj (first-person singular past tense mûjta, participle mûjt(un)) (Gheg)
  1. (active, intransitive) I can, I am able; I have the opportunity, power or ability
  2. (active) I beat, I win over, I conquer
  3. (active) (grammatical particle used for conjunctive forms + )
    A mund të më tregoni shtëpinë?
    Could you show me the house?
  4. (active, 3rd person) could be possible; possibly, maybe, perhaps (used as a semi-auxiliary verb + )
  5. (active, 3rd person, negatory) unable/impossible + to (in combination with negatory s, s', nuk (but not with mos) + (to))
  • (passive) múndem (first-person singular past tense u munda, participle mundur)[10]
  • (passive) mûjhna (first-person singular past tense u mûjta, participle mûjt(un)) (Gheg)
  1. (passive, reflexive) I can no longer, I can't; I am not able, impossible for me
  2. (passive) maybe, perhaps, it could, so it be (as a particle)
    Synonyms: mbase, ndoshta, vaki

Verb 2[edit]

  • (active) mund (first-person singular past tense munda, participle mundur)[11]
  • (active) mûj (first-person singular past tense u mûjta, participle mûjt(un)) (Gheg)
  1. (active, transitive) I defeat, beat (someone); I emerge victorious (in a match, battle)
  2. (active) I survive, get over, beat (a fear, illness, disease)
  3. (active, figuratively, 3rd person) (+ short pronoun forms) put down, take away/over (force, power, ability, etc.)
    Më mundi gjumi.
    The sleep took over me
  • (passive) múndem (first-person singular past tense u munda, participle mundur)[12]
  • (passive) mûjhna (first-person singular past tense u mûjta, participle mûjt(un)) (Gheg)
  1. (passive, reflexive) wrestle, fight or encounter with someone
    Synonyms: luftoj, rrok, kap
  2. (passive) I try to get over (it) (ache, pain, heartbreak, grief, hard work, etc.)
    Synonyms: mundoj, provoj

Conjugation[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • [6] noun mund (definite/sg. form mundi) • Fjalor Shqip (Albanian Dictionary)
  • Oda Buchholz, Wilfried Fiedler, Gerda Uhlisch (2000) Langenscheidt Handwörterbuch Albanisch, Langenscheidt Verlag, →ISBN, page 335 (noun mund / verb mund (14))

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bardhyl Demiraj, Peter Dayan (1997) Albanische Etymologien: Untersuchungen zum albanischen Erbwortschatz (Albanian Etymologies: Studies on the Albanian hereditary vocabulary), Editions Rodopi B.V., Amsterdam - Atlanta GA, →ISBN, page 281, 460, 452
  2. ^ Gustav Meyer (1892) Albanesische Studien III. Lautlehre des indogermanischen Bestandteile des Albanesischen, Carl Gerold's Sohn, page 64, 80
  3. ^ Gustav Meyer (1891) Etymologisches Wörterbuch der albanesischen Sprache, Trübner, page 291
  4. ^ Jokl, Norbert (1911) Studien zur albanesischen Etymologie und Wortbildung (Sitzungsberichte der Philosophisch-Historischen Classe der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften; 168) (in German), Vienna: A. Hölder, page 58
  5. ^ Eqrem Çabej (1976/1982) Studime etimologjike në fushë të shqipes, Tiranë Akad. e Shkencave e RP të Shqipërisë, Inst. i Gjuhësisë dhe i Letërsisë, →ISBN Invalid ISBN, page 357-358
  6. ^ Demiraj, Bardhyl (1997) Albanische Etymologien: Untersuchungen zum albanischen Erbwortschatz [Albanian Etymologies: Investigations into the Albanian Inherited Lexicon] (Leiden Studies in Indo-European; 7)‎[1] (in German), Amsterdam, Atlanta: Rodopi, page 281-283
  7. ^ Werner Winter (1965) Evidence for Laryngeals, The Hague, Mouton, page 138
  8. ^ Orel, Vladimir (1998), “mund”, in Albanian Etymological Dictionary, Leiden, Boston, Cologne: Brill, →ISBN, page 277-278
  9. ^ [2] active verb mund (I - intransitive) (aorist munda; participle mundur) • Fjalor Shqip (Albanian Dictionary)
  10. ^ [3] passive verb mundem (múndem) (I - reflexive) (aorist u munda; participle mundur) • Fjalor Shqip (Albanian Dictionary)
  11. ^ [4] active verb mund (II - transitive) (aorist munda; participle mundur) • Fjalor Shqip (Albanian Dictionary)
  12. ^ [5] passive verb mundem (múndem) (II - reflexive) (aorist u munda; participle mundur) • Fjalor Shqip (Albanian Dictionary)

Danish[edit]

mund

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse muðr, munnr, from Proto-Germanic *munþaz, cognate with English mouth, German Mund.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

mund c (singular definite munden, plural indefinite munde)

  1. mouth (the opening of an animal through which food is ingested)

Inflection[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]

Verb[edit]

mund

  1. imperative of munde

Icelandic[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Norse mund, from Proto-Germanic *mundō.

Noun[edit]

mund f (genitive singular mundar, nominative plural mundir)

  1. (poetic) hand
Declension[edit]
Synonyms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Related to Old Norse munda (to aim, to strive), Old High German muntar (keen, eager), from Proto-Germanic *mundraz (alert).

Noun[edit]

mund f (genitive singular mundar, nominative plural mundir) or mund n (genitive singular munds, nominative plural mund)

  1. Used only in set phrases.
Declension[edit]

or

Derived terms[edit]
Related terms[edit]

Middle English[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old English mund, from Proto-Germanic *mundō.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

mund (plural moundes or munden)

  1. Might, ability, or skill.
  2. Magnitude, greatness, utility, or usefulness.
  3. (rare) Protection, guarding, defence
  4. (rare) A hand, especially as a measurement.
  5. (rare) A band of warriors or fighters.

Descendants[edit]

  • English: mound, mund
  • Scots: moond

References[edit]


Norwegian Bokmål[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse muðr, munnr, from Proto-Germanic *munþaz.

Noun[edit]

Norwegian Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia no

mund

  1. mouth

Inflection[edit]

singular plural
indefinite mund munder
definite munden mundene

Old English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *mundō.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

mund f (nominative plural munda or munde)

  1. (poetic) hand
  2. trust, security. protection
  3. protector, guardian

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]


Old French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin mundus.

Noun[edit]

mund m (oblique plural munz or muntz, nominative singular munz or muntz, nominative plural mund)

  1. the world

Old High German[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-West Germanic *munþ.

Noun[edit]

mund m

  1. (anatomy) mouth

Declension[edit]


Old Norse[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *mundō (hand). Further cognates see there.

Noun[edit]

mund f

  1. hand

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • mund in Geir T. Zoëga (1910) A Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic, Oxford: Clarendon Press

Romansch[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin mundus.

Noun[edit]

mund m (plural munds)

  1. (Rumantsch Grischun, Sursilvan, Sutsilvan) world