nauplius

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See also: Nauplius

English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

The nauplius of a shrimp

Borrowed from New Latin Nauplius (former genus name) (coined by Danish naturalist Otto Friedrich Müller (1730–1784) who mistakenly thought the larvae were a separate genus of animal), from Latin nauplius (argonaut, paper nautilus (genus Argonauta)), from Ancient Greek ναύπλιος (naúplios, type of shellfish), from ναῦς (naûs, ship) + πλέω (pléō, to sail); compare Latin Nauplius (mythological king of Euboea), from Ancient Greek Ναύπλιος (Naúplios, mythological founder of the city of Nauplia (Nafplio), a son of Poseidon and Amymone).[1]

The plural nauplii is from Latin nauplius + -iī (plural of -ius).

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Noun[edit]

nauplius (plural nauplii or naupliuses)

  1. (zoology) A crustacean larva that has three pairs of locomotive organs (corresponding to antennules, antennae, and mandibles), a median eye, and little or no segmentation of the body. [from mid 19th c.]
    • 1870 November 16, A[lpheus] S[pring] Packard, “The Development of Limulus Polyphemus”, in Memoirs of the Boston Society of Natural History, volume II, Boston, Mass.: Boston Society of Natural History, published 1872, OCLC 1026609349, page 163:
      The oval body, with the abdomen not yet differentiated, and bearing no limbs; the (usually) three pairs of limbs, representing the first and second antennæ and mandibles of the adult, together with the single eye, are the distinguishing characteristics of the nauplius stage.
    • 1877, Andrew Wilson, “Some Animal Histories”, in Robert Brown, editor, Science for All, volume I, London; Paris; New York, N.Y.: Cassell, Petter, Galpin & Co., OCLC 23929693, page 80, column 1:
      Here is an embryo, or young form, which has just escaped from the egg, and is hurrying off seawards to "see life," without doubt, and to begin life in earnest as well. You now behold a little body, which, roughly described, we shall say has a triangular shape. It has a tail behind, and the shield or "shell" with which the little body is covered, is prolonged in front and at its side-angles or corners into spines or horns. Three pairs of feet, or appendages that resemble these organs, are possessed by the infant barnacle, the two hinder pairs being forked at their tips and provided with long bristles. A single eye appears in front of the two foremost "feet;" and a mouth, stomach, and intestine are discovered within this little body. Thus provided within and without, this little Cyclopean creature swims merrily through the sea. In this stage it is universally named the Nauplius.
    • 1987, Ralph [Morris] Buchsbaum; Mildred Buchsbaum; John Pearse; Vicki Pearse, “Lobsters and Other Arthropods: Crustaceans”, in Animals without Backbones, 3rd edition, Chicago, Ill.; London: University of Chicago Press, →ISBN, page 345:
      Fairy-shrimps are primitive crustaceans, most of which live in temporary ponds, roadside ditches, or marshes that dry up in sumer. They lay thick-walled eggs that withstand summer drying and winter freezing, lying dormant in the mud until they hatch out as naupliuses when wetted by the first heavy spring rain.
    • 1997, Roger L[eroy] Kaesler, editor, Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology: Part O, Arthropoda 1, Trilobita Revised, volume 1 (Introduction, Order Agnostida, Order Redlichiida), revised edition, Boulder, Colo.: Geological Society of America; Lawrence, Kan.: University of Kansas, →ISBN, page 187, column 2:
      It is not certain that phaseluses are trilobites and not naupliuses of crustaceans or an extinct group of arthropods that has yet to be recognized.
    • 2001, Naureen A. Qureshi; Nancy N. Rabalais, “Distribution of Zooplankton on a Seasonally Hypoxic Continental Shelf”, in Nancy N. Rabalais and R[obert] Eugene Turner, editors, Coastal Hypoxia: Consequences for Living Resources and Ecosystems (Coastal and Estuarine Studies; 58), Washington, D.C.: American Geophysical Union, →ISBN, page 72:
      The copepod nauplii concentrations were significantly different among stations and by depth (Appendices 3 and 4).
    • 2003, Donald I[rving] Williamson, “Arthopods”, in The Origins of Larvae, revised edition, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, →ISBN, page 172:
      I suggest that several species of nauplioids hybridized with representatives of several groups of arthropods to give them nauplius larvae. [] The occurrence of nauplius larvae in crustacean taxa appears to be almost random, and it bears little relationship to adult morphology or to evolutionary history. This is consistent with the proposal that nauplii were acquired independently and at various times, and it challenge the widely held view that nauplii played a fundamental role in crustacean evolution.
    • 2007, Aquaculture Management and Conservation Service, Fisheries and Aquaculture Management Division, FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department, “Pre-spawning Procedures”, in Improving Penaeus monodon Hatchery Practices: Manual Based on Experience in India (FAO Fisheries Technical Paper; 446), Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, →ISBN, section 3.13.2 (Nauplii), page 47:
      Only nauplii that are attracted to the light at the top of the hatching tank should be collected, since these are the healthy ones.
    • 2018, Richard R. Strathmann, “Larvae and Direct Development”, in Gary A. Wellborn and Martin Thiel, editors, Life Histories (The Natural History of the Crustacea; 5), New York, N.Y.: Oxford University Press, →ISBN, page 158:
      The taxonomic distribution of nauplii within Crustacea raises questions, however, about the evolution of a nonfeeding but swimming nauplius from an embryonized nauplius. Most malacostracans lack a free nauplius stage. Euphausiaceans and dendrobranchiate shrimp, which hatch as nonfeeding nauplii, are the exceptions. Inferred phylogenies of malacostracans imply that either the ancestor lacked a free nauplius and free nauplii subsequently evolved again, or that egg nauplii evolved multiple times [].

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