os

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English[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Borrowed from Latin os (a bone).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

os (plural ossa)

  1. (rare, anatomy) Synonym of bone.
    • 1749, Henry Fielding, The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling, volume III, London: A[ndrew] Millar [], OCLC 928184292:
      I was once, I remember, called to a patient who had received a violent contusion in his tibia, by which the exterior cutis was lacerated, so that there was a profuse sanguinary discharge; and the interior membranes were so divellicated, that the os or bone very plainly appeared through the aperture of the vulnus or wound.
Usage notes[edit]

Only used by doctors and surgeons when practising. Not used by medical laypeople.

Translations[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Unadapted borrowing from Latin ōs (the mouth).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

os (plural ora)

  1. (anatomy) An opening or entrance to a passage, particularly one at either end of the cervix, internal (to the uterus) or external (to the vagina).
    Synonym: orifice
    • 1891, Texas Medical Association, Transactions, volume 23, page 175:
      The instrument closed, as seen in Fig. 1, is then passed along the finger to the os, in and through the cervix up to the fundus of the uterus, which may be determined both by the distance and the resistance to the broad rounded head of the Capiat.
Translations[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Borrowed from Swedish ås.

Pronunciation[edit]

Phonetik.svg This entry needs pronunciation information. If you are familiar with the IPA or enPR then please add some!

Noun[edit]

os

  1. An osar or esker.

Etymology 4[edit]

From o +‎ -s.

Noun[edit]

os

  1. (rare) Alternative form of o's.

References[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Aragonese[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Vulgar Latin *lōs, from Latin illōs.

Article[edit]

os m pl

  1. the
    Os lugars d'Aragón
    The villages of Aragon

Usage notes[edit]

  • The form los, either pronounced as los or as ros, can be found after words ending with -o.
  • Some dialects use the form els, often shortened to es.

Aromanian[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin ossum, from os. Compare Romanian os.

Noun[edit]

os n (plural oasi or oase)

  1. bone

Derived terms[edit]


Catalan[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Catalan os, from Latin ossum, non-standard variant of os.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

os m (plural ossos)

  1. bone
Derived terms[edit]
Related terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

os m (plural ossos, feminine ossa)

  1. (2016 spelling reform) Alternative form of ós (bear)

References[edit]


Danish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Norse oss (us).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ɔs/, [ʌs], [ɒ̽s]

Pronoun[edit]

os

  1. us, objective of vi
  2. (reflexive) ourselves
  3. (pluralis majestatis) ourself
See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Disputed.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

os c (singular definite osen, not used in plural form)

  1. smoke
  2. reek
  3. fug

Verb[edit]

os

  1. imperative of ose

Daur[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Mongolic *usun. Compare Mongolian ус (us).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

os

  1. water
    En osii ter nyadem waagw tunpund suree.
    Please pour water into that washbowl.

References[edit]

  • Henry G. Schwarz, The Minorities of Northern China: A Survey (1984), page 140: 'water' Daur os

Dutch[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Dutch osse, from Old Dutch *osso, earlier *ohso, from Proto-Germanic *uhsô.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

os m (plural ossen, diminutive osje n)

  1. ox (a castrated bull)

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Afrikaans: os
  • Negerhollands: os

Fala[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Portuguese os, from Latin illōs.

Article[edit]

os m pl (singular o, feminine a, feminine plural as)

  1. masculine plural of o (the)
    • 2000, Domingo Frades Gaspar, Vamus a falal: Notas pâ coñocel y platical en nosa fala, Editora regional da Extremadura, Chapter 1: Lengua Española:
      En esti territorio se han assentau, en os anus que se indican, os habitantis siguientis:
      In this territory there were living, in the years specified, the following (amount of) inhabitants:

French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old French os, from Latin ossum, popular variant of os, ossis, ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *h₃ésth₁ (bone), *h₂óst.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (singular) IPA(key): /ɔs/
  • (plural) IPA(key): /o/
  • After consonants other than /z/, the plural may alternatively be pronounced like the singular (cf. the same in œufs).
  • Colloquially, some speakers use the hybrid form /os/ for both singular and plural.

Noun[edit]

os m (plural os)

  1. bone

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Galician[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Portuguese os, from Vulgar Latin *los, from Latin illōs, accusative plural of ille (that).

Pronunciation[edit]

Article[edit]

os m pl (masculine singular o, feminine singular a, feminine plural as)

  1. (definite) the
Usage notes[edit]

The definite article o (in all its forms) regularly forms contractions when it follows the prepositions a (to), con (with), de (of, from), and en (in). For example, con os ("with the") contracts to cos, and en os ("in the") contracts to nos.

Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Pronoun[edit]

os

  1. accusative of eles

Guinea-Bissau Creole[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Portuguese osso. Cognate with Kabuverdianu osu.

Noun[edit]

os

  1. bone

Irish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Irish oss, from Proto-Celtic *uxsū, from Proto-Indo-European *uksḗn (bull).

Noun[edit]

os m (genitive singular ois, nominative plural ois)

  1. (literary) deer
    Synonym: fia
Declension[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Irish úas, ós, from Proto-Celtic *ouxsos, from Proto-Indo-European *h₃ewps-.

Preposition[edit]

os (plus dative, triggers no mutation)

  1. over, above
Derived terms[edit]

Mutation[edit]

Irish mutation
Radical Eclipsis with h-prothesis with t-prothesis
os n-os hos t-os
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Further reading[edit]

  • "os" in Foclóir Gaeilge–Béarla, An Gúm, 1977, by Niall Ó Dónaill.
  • Entries containing “os” in New English-Irish Dictionary by Foras na Gaeilge.

Istro-Romanian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin ossum, from os.

Noun[edit]

os n (plural ose, definite singular osu, definite plural osele)

  1. bone

Latin[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

ōs (mouth)

From Proto-Italic *ōs, from Proto-Indo-European *h₃éh₁os. Cognates include Hittite 𒀀𒄿𒅖 (aiš), Sanskrit आस् (ās), Old Irish á, Old English ōr.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

ōs n (genitive ōris); third declension

  1. mouth
    Synonym: bucca
    Hyponyms: buccula, ōsculum
    • Genesis, Vulgate 8.11:
      at illa venit ad eum ad vesperam portans ramum olivae virentibus foliis in ore suo intellexit ergo Noe quod cessassent aquae super terram
      But it came to him in the evening carrying a green-leaved olive branch in its mouth, therefore Noah understood that the waters above the land were coming to and end.
  2. (transferred sense)
    1. (in general) face, countenance
    ad aliquem ora convertereto turn the face towards someone
    1. Synonyms: (Vulgar Latin) cara, faciēs, frōns, vultus
    2. head
      Synonym: caput
    3. (poetic) speech
    4. mouth, opening, entrance, aperture, orifice
    5. beak of a ship
    6. edge of a sword
Quote-alpha.png This entry needs quotations to illustrate usage. If you come across any interesting, durably archived quotes then please add them!
Inflection[edit]

Third-declension noun (neuter, i-stem).

Case Singular Plural
Nominative ōs ōra
Genitive ōris ōrium
ōrum
Dative ōrī ōribus
Accusative ōs ōra
Ablative ōre ōribus
Vocative ōs ōra
Derived terms[edit]
Descendants[edit]
  • English: os

Etymology 2[edit]

ossa manūs (bones of the hand)

From Proto-Indo-European *h₃ésth₁ (bone), *h₂óst. Cognates include Ancient Greek ὀστέον (ostéon), Sanskrit अस्थि (asthi) and Old Armenian ոսկր (oskr).

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

os n (genitive ossis); third declension

  1. (literally, anatomy) bone
    "ipsorum ore respondent se lassis post viam ossibus non posse de lecto surgere..." Regula magistri
    By the same mouth they respond that, due to their weary bones after travel, it is not possible to arise from bed.
    1. (transferred sense) hard or innermost part of trees or fruits; heartwood
  2. (figuratively) bones, framework or outline of a discourse
Quote-alpha.png This entry needs quotations to illustrate usage. If you come across any interesting, durably archived quotes then please add them!
Inflection[edit]

Third-declension noun (neuter, i-stem).

Case Singular Plural
Nominative os ossa
Genitive ossis ossium
Dative ossī ossibus
Accusative os ossa
Ablative osse ossibus
Vocative os ossa
Derived terms[edit]
Related terms[edit]
Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • ōs in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • ŏs in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • ōs in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • os in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • os in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré Latin-Français, Hachette, page 1095
  • os in Charles du Fresne du Cange’s Glossarium Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (augmented edition with additions by D. P. Carpenterius, Adelungius and others, edited by Léopold Favre, 1883–1887)
  • Carl Meißner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[2], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • to praise a man to his face: aliquem coram, in os or praesentem laudare
    • to be in every one's mouth: in ore omnium or omnibus (hominum or hominibus, but only mihi, tibi, etc.) esse
    • to harp on a thing, be always talking of it: in ore habere aliquid (Fam. 6. 18. 5)
    • physics; natural philosophy: physica (-orum) (Or. 34. 119); philosophia naturalis
    • logic, dialectic: dialectica (-ae or -orum) (pure Latin disserendi ratio et scientia)
    • all agree on this point: omnes (uno ore) in hac re consentiunt
    • unanimously: una voce; uno ore
    • mathematics: mathematica (-ae) or geometria (-ae), geometrica (-orum) (Tusc. 1. 24. 57)
    • arithmetic: arithmetica (-orum)
    • arithmetic: numeri (-orum)
    • no word escaped him: nullum verbum ex ore eius excidit (or simply ei)
    • maintain a devout silence (properly, utter no ill-omened word): favete ore, linguis = εὐφημειτε
    • to talk of a subject which was then the common topic of conversation: in eum sermonem incidere, qui tum fere multis erat in ore
    • (ambiguous) to draw every one's eyes upon one: omnium oculos (et ora) ad se convertere
    • (ambiguous) to be in every one's mouth: per omnium ora ferri
    • (ambiguous) to be a subject for gossip: in ora vulgi abire
  • Dizionario Latino italiano, Olivetti

Middle English[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

os

  1. Alternative form of us

Middle French[edit]

Noun[edit]

os m (plural os)

  1. bone

Descendants[edit]

  • French: os

Middle Low German[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

ös

  1. (personal pronoun, dative, accusative) Alternative form of uns.

Norwegian Nynorsk[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Norse óss. Same as Latin os.

Noun[edit]

os m or n (definite singular osen or oset, indefinite plural osar or os, definite plural osane or osa)

  1. an outlet, estuary, river mouth (where a river runs out of a lake, or enters a lake or the ocean)

Etymology 2[edit]

Of unknown origin.

Noun[edit]

os m (definite singular osen, indefinite plural osar, definite plural osane)

  1. to fume, smoke
  2. to reek, malodorousness
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

os

  1. obsolete spelling of oss
    • 1770, Storm, Edvard, “Guten aa Jenta paa Fjøshjellen”, in Den fyrste morgonblånen, Oslo: Novus, published 1990, page 233:
      Dæmæ venda os aat Bygden
      thus we turn towards the village

Etymology 4[edit]

Verb[edit]

os

  1. past tense of ase
  2. imperative of ose

Further reading[edit]

  • “os” in The Nynorsk Dictionary.
  • “os”, in Norsk Ordbok: ordbok over det norske folkemålet og det nynorske skriftmålet, Oslo: Samlaget, 1950-2016

Old English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *ansuz (god, deity), from Proto-Indo-European *h₂ems- (engender, beget). Cognate with Old Norse áss.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

ōs m (nominative plural ēse) (declension unknown)

  1. god
  2. the runic character (/o/ or /oː/)

Old French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin ossum, popular variant of os.

Noun[edit]

os m (oblique plural os, nominative singular os, nominative plural os)

  1. bone

Descendants[edit]

  • French: os

Old Irish[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • as, es, is (aberrant Würzburg forms)

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Celtic *sonts, plural *sontes (whence ot); ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *h₁sónts.[1] Copular origin explains the use of independent subject pronouns with this conjunction, which otherwise are usually used with the copula is.

Conjunction[edit]

os (third-person plural ot)

  1. disjunctive conjunction

Usage notes[edit]

  • The conjunction takes on the form ot when used with the third-person plural pronoun é and os elsewhere.

Descendants[edit]

  • Middle Irish: os
    • Irish: ós (reanalyzed as ó (since) +‎ is (is))

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hamp, Eric P. (1996), “Varia II”, in Ériu[1], volume 47, Royal Irish Academy, JSTOR 30007446, retrieved April 29, 2022, pages 209–211

Further reading[edit]


Old Saxon[edit]

Noun[edit]

os m

  1. Alternative form of as

Polish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

os f

  1. genitive plural of osa
    Synonym: ós

Portuguese[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Portuguese os, from Vulgar Latin *los, from Latin illōs.

Pronunciation[edit]

Article[edit]

os

  1. masculine plural of o
Quotations[edit]

For quotations using this term, see Citations:o.

See also[edit]
Portuguese articles (edit)
Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Masculine Feminine
Definite articles
(the)
o a os as
Indefinite articles
(a, an; some)
um uma uns umas

Pronoun[edit]

os

  1. third-person plural direct objective personal pronoun; them
    Encontrei-os na rua.
    I met them at the street.
    Synonyms: (indirect objective) lhes, eles, (prepositional) elas
Usage notes[edit]
  • Becomes -los after verb forms ending in -r, -s, or -z, the pronouns nos and vos, and the adverb eis; the ending letter causing the change disappears.
    After ver:
    Posso vê-los?May I see them?
    After pôs:
    Pô-los ali.He put them there.
    After fiz:
    Fi-los ficarem contentes.I made them become happy.
    After nos:
    Deu-no-los relutantemente.He gave them to us reluctantly.
    After eis:
    Ei-los!Behold them!
  • Becomes -nos after a nasal diphthong: -ão, -am [ɐ̃w̃], -õe [õj̃], -em, -êm [ẽj̃].
    Detêm-nos como prisioneiros.They detain them as a prisoners.
  • In Brazil it is being abandoned in favor of the nominative form eles.
    Eu os vi. → Eu vi eles.I saw them.
Quotations[edit]

For quotations using this term, see Citations:os.

See also[edit]
Portuguese personal pronouns (edit)
Number Person Nominative
(subject)
Accusative
(direct object)
Dative
(indirect object)
Prepositional Prepositional
with com
Non-declining
m f m f m and f m f m f m f
Singular First eu me mim comigo
Second tu te ti contigo você
o senhor a senhora
Third ele ela o
(lo, no)
a
(la, na)
lhe ele ela com ele com ela o mesmo a mesma
se si consigo
Plural First nós nos nós connosco (Portugal)
conosco (Brazil)
a gente
Second vós vos vós convosco, com vós vocês
os senhores as senhoras
Third eles elas os
(los, nos)
as
(las, nas)
lhes eles elas com eles com elas os mesmos as mesmas
se si consigo
Indefinite se si consigo

Etymology 2[edit]

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Noun[edit]

os m

  1. plural of o

Romanian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin ossum, popular variant of os, ossis, from Proto-Italic *ōs, ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *h₃ésth₁ (bone), *h₂óst.

Compare Catalan os, French os, Italian osso, Portuguese osso, Sardinian ossu, Spanish hueso.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

os n (plural oase)

  1. bone

Declension[edit]

Related terms[edit]


Scottish Gaelic[edit]

Preposition[edit]

os

  1. (obsolete) over, above

Usage notes[edit]

  • Now used only in the compounds listed below.

Derived terms[edit]


Serbo-Croatian[edit]

Serbo-Croatian Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia sh

Alternative forms[edit]

  • ȏsa (Bosnian, Serbian)

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *osь

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

ȏs f (Cyrillic spelling о̑с)

  1. (Croatia) axis

Declension[edit]


Slovak[edit]

Slovak Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia sk

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *osь.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

os f (genitive singular osi, nominative plural osi, genitive plural osí, declension pattern of kosť)

  1. axis (geometry: imaginary line)
  2. axle

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • os in Slovak dictionaries at slovnik.juls.savba.sk

Slovene[edit]

Slovene Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia sl

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *osь.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

ọ̑s f

  1. axis (geometry: imaginary line)

Inflection[edit]

Feminine, i-stem, mobile accent
nom. sing. ós
gen. sing. osí
singular dual plural
nominative ós osí osí
accusative ós osí osí
genitive osí osí osí
dative ôsi oséma osém
locative ôsi oséh oséh
instrumental osjó oséma osmí

Further reading[edit]

  • os”, in Slovarji Inštituta za slovenski jezik Frana Ramovša ZRC SAZU, portal Fran

Spanish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin vos.

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

os

  1. you, to you, for you; dative and accusative of vosotros

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]


Swedish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

os n

  1. (uncountable) (bad) smell, especially a strong smell originating from cooking
  2. a river mouth; the place where a creek, stream or river enters into a lake
  3. indefinite genitive singular of o.

Declension[edit]

Declension of os 
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative os oset os osen
Genitive os osets os osens

See also[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Volapük[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

os

  1. (impersonal pronoun) it

Welsh[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Conjunction[edit]

os

  1. if (used with open conditions, i.e., those that are considered likely or plausible)
    Os ydw i'n iawn, felly rwyt ti'n mewn trafferth.- If I am right, then you are in trouble.

See also[edit]

  • pe (used with closed conditions)