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See also: pern


Alternative forms[edit]


An old compound, with as first part Proto-Indo-European *per- (over), and the second part a different term in different Indo-European languages (in Ancient Greek and Sanskrit, the second term was probably *ut- < *wet- (year), i.e., *per-ut(i)-). In the Baltic case, it is possible that the second element was Proto-Indo-European *sénos: *per-sénos > per-enos > Proto-Baltic *pernas > Latvian *per̃ns > pērns, of which pērn would be the adverbial form (cf. archaic pērni). Another possibility is that the second element was a reflex of Proto-Indo-European *en- (year) (cf. Old Church Slavonic лани (lani, last year), from Proto-Slavic *ol-ni, from the zero grade of *en-). Cognates include Lithuanian pérnai, Gothic 𐍆𐌰𐌹𐍂𐌽𐍃 (fairns, recent past (thing), past year (thing)), Old High German firni (old), Old High German firni (old), Icelandic forn (ancient), Sanskrit परुत् (parút, last year), Ancient Greek πέρυσι (pérusi), Irish para- (past, far; last year), Persian پار(pâr), Ossetian фарон (faron).[1]


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  1. last year
    tas notika pērnthis happened last year
    šis ir pirmā gada mežs! pērn iesējāmthis is a first-year foreest! last year we sowed
    mēs iepazināmies vai, pareizāk sakot, sastapāmies pērn, oktobra beigās, lietainas dienas nogalēwe became acquainted, or, better said, we ran into each other last year, late October, at the end of the rainy days
    viņš dzīvo kā putns zara galā: šogad te, Mežmaļos, pērn Likstās, nezin kur nākošu gaduhe lived like a bird at the end of a branch: this year here, in Mežmaļi, last year in Likstas, god knows where next year

Derived terms[edit]


  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “pērn”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, →ISBN