Translating Russian народная республика (from народный "popular, public, national" and республика "republic"), coined in the wake of the Russian Revolution of 1917. A Ukrainian People's Republic (Українська Народна Республіка) was declared in 1917. The term Народна Республіка at the time (1918-1919) was translated into English as "People's Republic" or as "National Republic" and rarely as "Popular Republic". But the states using the same self-designation forming after World War II, the People's Republics of Yugoslavia (Serbo-Croat narodna republika), Albania (Albanian republika popullore) , Bulgaria (Bulgarian народна република), Romania (Romanian republica populară) and China (Chinese 人民共和国, i.e. 人民+共和国) were rendered in English as "people's republics", or rarely as "popular republics", but not as "national republics".
- A self-designation of states with Marxist-Leninist governments.