phuma

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Phuthi[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Nguni [Term?], from Proto-Bantu *-púma.

Verb[edit]

-phúma

  1. to come out, to exit

Inflection[edit]

This verb needs an inflection-table template.


Swazi[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Nguni [Term?], from Proto-Bantu *-púma.

Verb[edit]

-phúma

  1. to come out, to exit

Inflection[edit]

This verb needs an inflection-table template.


Xhosa[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Nguni [Term?], from Proto-Bantu *-púma.

Verb[edit]

-phúma

  1. (intransitive) to come out, to exit
    Synonym: -hamba

Inflection[edit]

This verb needs an inflection-table template.


Zulu[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Nguni [Term?], from Proto-Bantu *-púma.

Verb[edit]

-phúma

  1. (intransitive) to come out, to exit
  2. (intransitive) to come from, to originate from
  3. (intransitive) to rise (of the sun)
  4. (transitive) to emit, to secrete, to discharge

Inflection[edit]

Tone H
Infinitive ukuphuma
Positive Negative
Infinitive ukuphuma ukungaphumi
Imperative
Simple + object concord
Singular phuma -phume
Plural phumani -phumeni
Present
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngiyaphuma, ngiphuma engiphumayo, engiphuma ngiphuma angiphumi engingaphumi ngingaphumi
2nd singular uyaphuma, uphuma ophumayo, ophuma uphuma awuphumi ongaphumi ungaphumi
1st plural siyaphuma, siphuma esiphumayo, esiphuma siphuma asiphumi esingaphumi singaphumi
2nd plural niyaphuma, niphuma eniphumayo, eniphuma niphuma aniphumi eningaphumi ningaphumi
Class 1 uyaphuma, uphuma ophumayo, ophuma ephuma akaphumi ongaphumi engaphumi
Class 2 bayaphuma, baphuma abaphumayo, abaphuma bephuma abaphumi abangaphumi bengaphumi
Class 3 uyaphuma, uphuma ophumayo, ophuma uphuma awuphumi ongaphumi ungaphumi
Class 4 iyaphuma, iphuma ephumayo, ephuma iphuma ayiphumi engaphumi ingaphumi
Class 5 liyaphuma, liphuma eliphumayo, eliphuma liphuma aliphumi elingaphumi lingaphumi
Class 6 ayaphuma, aphuma aphumayo, aphuma ephuma awaphumi angaphumi engaphumi
Class 7 siyaphuma, siphuma esiphumayo, esiphuma siphuma asiphumi esingaphumi singaphumi
Class 8 ziyaphuma, ziphuma eziphumayo, eziphuma ziphuma aziphumi ezingaphumi zingaphumi
Class 9 iyaphuma, iphuma ephumayo, ephuma iphuma ayiphumi engaphumi ingaphumi
Class 10 ziyaphuma, ziphuma eziphumayo, eziphuma ziphuma aziphumi ezingaphumi zingaphumi
Class 11 luyaphuma, luphuma oluphumayo, oluphuma luphuma aluphumi olungaphumi lungaphumi
Class 14 buyaphuma, buphuma obuphumayo, obuphuma buphuma abuphumi obungaphumi bungaphumi
Class 15 kuyaphuma, kuphuma okuphumayo, okuphuma kuphuma akuphumi okungaphumi kungaphumi
Class 17 kuyaphuma, kuphuma okuphumayo, okuphuma kuphuma akuphumi okungaphumi kungaphumi
Recent past
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngiphumile, ngiphumē engiphumile, engiphumē ngiphumile, ngiphumē angiphumanga engingaphumanga ngingaphumanga
2nd singular uphumile, uphumē ophumile, ophumē uphumile, uphumē awuphumanga ongaphumanga ungaphumanga
1st plural siphumile, siphumē esiphumile, esiphumē siphumile, siphumē asiphumanga esingaphumanga singaphumanga
2nd plural niphumile, niphumē eniphumile, eniphumē niphumile, niphumē aniphumanga eningaphumanga ningaphumanga
Class 1 uphumile, uphumē ophumile, ophumē ephumile, ephumē akaphumanga ongaphumanga engaphumanga
Class 2 baphumile, baphumē abaphumile, abaphumē bephumile, bephumē abaphumanga abangaphumanga bengaphumanga
Class 3 uphumile, uphumē ophumile, ophumē uphumile, uphumē awuphumanga ongaphumanga ungaphumanga
Class 4 iphumile, iphumē ephumile, ephumē iphumile, iphumē ayiphumanga engaphumanga ingaphumanga
Class 5 liphumile, liphumē eliphumile, eliphumē liphumile, liphumē aliphumanga elingaphumanga lingaphumanga
Class 6 aphumile, aphumē aphumile, aphumē ephumile, ephumē awaphumanga angaphumanga engaphumanga
Class 7 siphumile, siphumē esiphumile, esiphumē siphumile, siphumē asiphumanga esingaphumanga singaphumanga
Class 8 ziphumile, ziphumē eziphumile, eziphumē ziphumile, ziphumē aziphumanga ezingaphumanga zingaphumanga
Class 9 iphumile, iphumē ephumile, ephumē iphumile, iphumē ayiphumanga engaphumanga ingaphumanga
Class 10 ziphumile, ziphumē eziphumile, eziphumē ziphumile, ziphumē aziphumanga ezingaphumanga zingaphumanga
Class 11 luphumile, luphumē oluphumile, oluphumē luphumile, luphumē aluphumanga olungaphumanga lungaphumanga
Class 14 buphumile, buphumē obuphumile, obuphumē buphumile, buphumē abuphumanga obungaphumanga bungaphumanga
Class 15 kuphumile, kuphumē okuphumile, okuphumē kuphumile, kuphumē akuphumanga okungaphumanga kungaphumanga
Class 17 kuphumile, kuphumē okuphumile, okuphumē kuphumile, kuphumē akuphumanga okungaphumanga kungaphumanga
Remote past
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngāphuma engāphuma ngāphuma angiphumanga engingaphumanga ngingaphumanga
2nd singular wāphuma owāphuma wāphuma awuphumanga ongaphumanga ungaphumanga
1st plural sāphuma esāphuma sāphuma asiphumanga esingaphumanga singaphumanga
2nd plural nāphuma enāphuma nāphuma aniphumanga eningaphumanga ningaphumanga
Class 1 wāphuma owāphuma āphuma akaphumanga ongaphumanga engaphumanga
Class 2 bāphuma abāphuma bāphuma abaphumanga abangaphumanga bengaphumanga
Class 3 wāphuma owāphuma wāphuma awuphumanga ongaphumanga ungaphumanga
Class 4 yāphuma eyāphuma yāphuma ayiphumanga engaphumanga ingaphumanga
Class 5 lāphuma elāphuma lāphuma aliphumanga elingaphumanga lingaphumanga
Class 6 āphuma āphuma āphuma awaphumanga angaphumanga engaphumanga
Class 7 sāphuma esāphuma sāphuma asiphumanga esingaphumanga singaphumanga
Class 8 zāphuma ezāphuma zāphuma aziphumanga ezingaphumanga zingaphumanga
Class 9 yāphuma eyāphuma yāphuma ayiphumanga engaphumanga ingaphumanga
Class 10 zāphuma ezāphuma zāphuma aziphumanga ezingaphumanga zingaphumanga
Class 11 lwāphuma olwāphuma lwāphuma aluphumanga olungaphumanga lungaphumanga
Class 14 bāphuma obāphuma bāphuma abuphumanga obungaphumanga bungaphumanga
Class 15 kwāphuma okwāphuma kwāphuma akuphumanga okungaphumanga kungaphumanga
Class 17 kwāphuma okwāphuma kwāphuma akuphumanga okungaphumanga kungaphumanga
Potential
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngingaphuma ngingaphuma ngingephume ngingephume
2nd singular ungaphuma ungaphuma ungephume ungephume
1st plural singaphuma singaphuma singephume singephume
2nd plural ningaphuma ningaphuma ningephume ningephume
Class 1 angaphuma engaphuma angephume engephume
Class 2 bangaphuma bengaphuma bangephume bengephume
Class 3 ungaphuma ungaphuma ungephume ungephume
Class 4 ingaphuma ingaphuma ingephume ingephume
Class 5 lingaphuma lingaphuma lingephume lingephume
Class 6 angaphuma engaphuma angephume engephume
Class 7 singaphuma singaphuma singephume singephume
Class 8 zingaphuma zingaphuma zingephume zingephume
Class 9 ingaphuma ingaphuma ingephume ingephume
Class 10 zingaphuma zingaphuma zingephume zingephume
Class 11 lungaphuma lungaphuma lungephume lungephume
Class 14 bungaphuma bungaphuma bungephume bungephume
Class 15 kungaphuma kungaphuma kungephume kungephume
Class 17 kungaphuma kungaphuma kungephume kungephume
Immediate future
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngizophuma engizophuma ngizophuma angizuphuma engingezuphuma ngingezuphuma
2nd singular uzophuma ozophuma uzophuma awuzuphuma ongezuphuma ungezuphuma
1st plural sizophuma esizophuma sizophuma asizuphuma esingezuphuma singezuphuma
2nd plural nizophuma enizophuma nizophuma anizuphuma eningezuphuma ningezuphuma
Class 1 uzophuma ozophuma ezophuma akazuphuma ongezuphuma engezuphuma
Class 2 bazophuma abazophuma bezophuma abazuphuma abangezuphuma bengezuphuma
Class 3 uzophuma ozophuma uzophuma awuzuphuma ongezuphuma ungezuphuma
Class 4 izophuma ezophuma izophuma ayizuphuma engezuphuma ingezuphuma
Class 5 lizophuma elizophuma lizophuma alizuphuma elingezuphuma lingezuphuma
Class 6 azophuma azophuma ezophuma awazuphuma angezuphuma engezuphuma
Class 7 sizophuma esizophuma sizophuma asizuphuma esingezuphuma singezuphuma
Class 8 zizophuma ezizophuma zizophuma azizuphuma ezingezuphuma zingezuphuma
Class 9 izophuma ezophuma izophuma ayizuphuma engezuphuma ingezuphuma
Class 10 zizophuma ezizophuma zizophuma azizuphuma ezingezuphuma zingezuphuma
Class 11 luzophuma oluzophuma luzophuma aluzuphuma olungezuphuma lungezuphuma
Class 14 buzophuma obuzophuma buzophuma abuzuphuma obungezuphuma bungezuphuma
Class 15 kuzophuma okuzophuma kuzophuma akuzuphuma okungezuphuma kungezuphuma
Class 17 kuzophuma okuzophuma kuzophuma akuzuphuma okungezuphuma kungezuphuma
Remote future
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngiyophuma engiyophuma ngiyophuma angiyuphuma engingeyuphuma ngingeyuphuma
2nd singular uyophuma oyophuma uyophuma awuyuphuma ongeyuphuma ungeyuphuma
1st plural siyophuma esiyophuma siyophuma asiyuphuma esingeyuphuma singeyuphuma
2nd plural niyophuma eniyophuma niyophuma aniyuphuma eningeyuphuma ningeyuphuma
Class 1 uyophuma oyophuma eyophuma akayuphuma ongeyuphuma engeyuphuma
Class 2 bayophuma abayophuma beyophuma abayuphuma abangeyuphuma bengeyuphuma
Class 3 uyophuma oyophuma uyophuma awuyuphuma ongeyuphuma ungeyuphuma
Class 4 iyophuma eyophuma iyophuma ayiyuphuma engeyuphuma ingeyuphuma
Class 5 liyophuma eliyophuma liyophuma aliyuphuma elingeyuphuma lingeyuphuma
Class 6 ayophuma ayophuma eyophuma awayuphuma angeyuphuma engeyuphuma
Class 7 siyophuma esiyophuma siyophuma asiyuphuma esingeyuphuma singeyuphuma
Class 8 ziyophuma eziyophuma ziyophuma aziyuphuma ezingeyuphuma zingeyuphuma
Class 9 iyophuma eyophuma iyophuma ayiyuphuma engeyuphuma ingeyuphuma
Class 10 ziyophuma eziyophuma ziyophuma aziyuphuma ezingeyuphuma zingeyuphuma
Class 11 luyophuma oluyophuma luyophuma aluyuphuma olungeyuphuma lungeyuphuma
Class 14 buyophuma obuyophuma buyophuma abuyuphuma obungeyuphuma bungeyuphuma
Class 15 kuyophuma okuyophuma kuyophuma akuyuphuma okungeyuphuma kungeyuphuma
Class 17 kuyophuma okuyophuma kuyophuma akuyuphuma okungeyuphuma kungeyuphuma
Present subjunctive
Positive Negative
1st singular ngiphume ngingaphumi
2nd singular uphume ungaphumi
1st plural siphume singaphumi
2nd plural niphume ningaphumi
Class 1 aphume angaphumi
Class 2 baphume bangaphumi
Class 3 uphume ungaphumi
Class 4 iphume ingaphumi
Class 5 liphume lingaphumi
Class 6 aphume angaphumi
Class 7 siphume singaphumi
Class 8 ziphume zingaphumi
Class 9 iphume ingaphumi
Class 10 ziphume zingaphumi
Class 11 luphume lungaphumi
Class 14 buphume bungaphumi
Class 15 kuphume kungaphumi
Class 17 kuphume kungaphumi
Past subjunctive
Positive Negative
1st singular ngaphuma ngangaphuma, angaphuma, angangaphuma
2nd singular waphuma wangaphuma, awaphuma, awangaphuma
1st plural saphuma sangaphuma, asaphuma, asangaphuma
2nd plural naphuma nangaphuma, anaphuma, anangaphuma
Class 1 waphuma wangaphuma, akaphuma, akangaphuma
Class 2 baphuma bangaphuma, abaphuma, abangaphuma
Class 3 waphuma wangaphuma, awaphuma, awangaphuma
Class 4 yaphuma yangaphuma, ayaphuma, ayangaphuma
Class 5 laphuma langaphuma, alaphuma, alangaphuma
Class 6 aphuma angaphuma, awaphuma, awangaphuma
Class 7 saphuma sangaphuma, asaphuma, asangaphuma
Class 8 zaphuma zangaphuma, azaphuma, azangaphuma
Class 9 yaphuma yangaphuma, ayaphuma, ayangaphuma
Class 10 zaphuma zangaphuma, azaphuma, azangaphuma
Class 11 lwaphuma lwangaphuma, alwaphuma, alwangaphuma
Class 14 baphuma bangaphuma, abaphuma, abangaphuma
Class 15 kwaphuma kwangaphuma, akwaphuma, akwangaphuma
Class 17 kwaphuma kwangaphuma, akwaphuma, akwangaphuma

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]