quam

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See also: Quam, quặm, and QAM

Latin

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Pronunciation

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Etymology 1

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From Proto-Italic *kʷis, *kʷoi, from Proto-Indo-European *kʷeh₂m, accusative of *kʷeh₂, feminine of *kʷos, *kʷis. Compare its masculine form cum (as in tum-tam).

According to L. R. Palmer, "In such a sentence as hic tam beatus est, quam ille the sense of tam beatus could equally be rendered by non beatior. It was presumably by the substitution of equivalent expressions ('contamination'), possibly first in negative expressions, that the illogical quam 'as' came to be used after comparatives."[1]

Alternative forms

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Adverb

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quam

  1. (before superlative adjectives and adverbs) in what (which) way, to what (which) degree; how, how much, as much as, as far as
    quam potuitin what way/to what degree/how/how much/as much as/as far as he could
    quam primumas quickly as possible
    quam celerrimeas quickly as possible
    quam maximeas far as possible
    quam serissimeas late as possible
    quam saepissimemuch often
    Quam rogas!How much you ask!
  2. (in comparisons) as
    Tam similis est, quam potest.
    It is as similar as it can be.
  3. (after comparative adjectives and adverbs) than
    alius quamdifferent than
    ante quam (+ subjunctive or infinitive)sooner than
    aliter quam volesin a different way than you want
    Hic maior est, quam ille.
    This is bigger than that.
    • 68 BCE – 44 BCE, Cicero, Epistulae ad Atticum 4.4A:
      offendēs dissignātiōnem Tyranniōnis mīrificam librōrum meōrum, quōrum reliquiae multō meliōrēs sunt quam putāram
      You will encounter Tyrannio's wonderful arrangement of my books, the remains of which are much better than I had thought.
    • c. 52 BCE, Julius Caesar, Commentarii de Bello Gallico VII.9:
      Priusque omnes in unum locum cogit quam de eius adventu Arvernis nuntiari posset
      and gathers all legions into one place sooner than (before) the intelligence of his arrival could be announced to the Arverni
    • c. 52 BCE, Julius Caesar, Commentarii de Bello Gallico VII.10:
      Praestare visum est tamen omnis difficultates perpeti quam tanta contumelia accepta
      However it seemed better to sustain any hardship than to accept such an insult
    • 405 CE, Jerome, Vulgate Tobias 2:9:
      sed Tobias plus timens Deum quam regem rapiebat corpora occisorum et occultabat in domo sua et mediis noctibus sepeliebat ea
      But Tobias fearing God more than the king, carried off the bodies of them that were slain, and hid them in his house, and at midnight buried them.
  4. (rare) rather than
Coordinate terms
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Derived terms
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Descendants
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  • French: que (than, as)
  • Old Galician-Portuguese: quan; ca
    • Galician: can (how); ca (than)
    • Portuguese: quão (how, as); ca (than) (northern)
  • Romanian: ca (than, as)
  • Romansch: ca (than)
  • Spanish: cuan (how)

References

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  • quam”, in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • quam”, in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • quam in Charles du Fresne du Cange’s Glossarium Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (augmented edition with additions by D. P. Carpenterius, Adelungius and others, edited by Léopold Favre, 1883–1887)
  • quam in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré latin-français, Hachette, pages 1,290–1,291.
  • Carl Meißner, Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • (ambiguous) I cannot wait till..: nihil mihi longius est or videtur quam dum or quam ut
    • (ambiguous) nothing is more tiresome to me than..: nihil mihi longius est quam (c. Inf.)
    • (ambiguous) it is more than twenty years ago: amplius sunt (quam) viginti anni or viginti annis
    • (ambiguous) Plato's ideal republic: illa civitas, quam Plato finxit
    • (ambiguous) this is more plausible than true: haec speciosiora quam veriora sunt
    • (ambiguous) I have exhausted all my material: copiam quam potui persecutus sum
    • (ambiguous) there is nothing I am more interested in than..: nihil antiquius or prius habeo quam ut (nihil mihi antiquius or potius est, quam ut)
    • (ambiguous) by the longest possible forced marches: quam maximis itineribus (potest)
  • Dizionario Latino, Olivetti
  • quam in Ramminger, Johann (2024 July 23 (last accessed)) Neulateinische Wortliste: Ein Wörterbuch des Lateinischen von Petrarca bis 1700[2], pre-publication website, 2005-2016
  • quam” on pages 1,537–1,538 of the Oxford Latin Dictionary (1st ed., 1968–82)
  1. ^ Palmer, L.R. (1906) The Latin Language, London, Faber and Faber, p. 337

Etymology 2

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See quī (relative pronoun and interrogative adjective).

Pronoun

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quam

  1. accusative singular feminine of quī

Adjective

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quam

  1. accusative singular feminine of quī

Etymology 3

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See quis (pronoun).

Pronoun

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quam

  1. accusative singular feminine of quis

Middle Dutch

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Verb

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quam

  1. first/third-person singular past indicative of cōmen

Middle English

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Pronoun

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quam

  1. (Northern) Alternative form of whom (who, whom, accusative)