From Middle English spirit, from Old French espirit (“spirit”), from Latin spīritus (“breath; spirit”), from Proto-Indo-European *(s)peys- (“to blow, breathe”). Compare inspire, respire, transpire, all ultimately from Latin spīrō (“I breathe, blow, respire”). Displaced native Middle English gast (“spirit”) (from Old English gāst (“spirit, ghost”)), whence modern English ghost. Doublet of esprit, spiritus, and sprite.
- (UK) IPA(key): /ˈspɪɹɪt/
- (US) IPA(key): /ˈspiɹɪt/, /ˈspɪɹɪt/
Audio (US) (file)
- Rhymes: -ɪɹɪt
- Hyphenation: spir‧it
- The soul of a person or other creature.
- 1918, W[illiam] B[abington] Maxwell, chapter VII, in The Mirror and the Lamp, Indianapolis, Ind.: The Bobbs-Merrill Company, OCLC 4293071:
- […] St. Bede's at this period of its history was perhaps the poorest and most miserable parish in the East End of London. Close-packed, crushed by the buttressed height of the railway viaduct, rendered airless by huge walls of factories, it at once banished lively interest from a stranger's mind and left only a dull oppression of the spirit.
- 1967, MacCormack, Woman Times Seven:
- […] a triumph of the spirit over the flesh.
- 2004, Carlin, George, “THAT'S THE SPIRIT”, in When Will Jesus Bring the Pork Chops?, New York: Hyperion Books, →ISBN, OCLC 757869006, OL 24604921M, page 20:
- I don't understand these people who call themselves spiritual advisors. Franklin Graham, the unfortunate son of Billy Graham, is George Bush's spiritual advisor. Bill Clinton had Jesse Jackson.
Here's the part I don't understand: How can someone else advise you on your spirit? Isn't spirit an intensely personal, internal thing? Doesn't it, by its very nature, elude definition, much less analysis? What kind of advice could some drone who has devoted his life to the self-deception of religion possibly give you about your spirit? It sounds like a hustle to me.
- 2008, BioWare, Mass Effect, Redwood City: Electronic Arts, →ISBN, OCLC 246633669, PC, scene: Turians: Religion Codex entry:
- Turians believe that groups and areas have "spirits" that transcend the individual. For example, a military unit would be considered to have a literal spirit that embodies the honor and courage it has displayed. A city's spirit reflects the accomplishments and industry of its residents. An ancient tree's spirit reflects the beauty and tranquility of the area it grows within.
These spirits are neither good nor evil, nor are they appealed to for intercession. Turians do not believe spirits can affect the world, but spirits can inspire the living. Prayers and rituals allow an individual to converse with a spirit for guidance or inspiration. For example a turian who finds his loyalty tested may appeal to the spirit of his unit, hoping to reconnect with the pride and honor of the group. A turian who wishes to create a work of art may attempt to connect with the spirit of a beautiful location.
- A supernatural being, often but not exclusively without physical form; ghost, fairy, angel.
- A wandering spirit haunts the island.
- 2011 October 1, Phil Dawkes, “Sunderland 2-2 West Brom”, in BBC Sport:
- The result may not quite give the Wearsiders a sweet ending to what has been a sour week, following allegations of sexual assault and drug possession against defender Titus Bramble, but it does at least demonstrate that their spirit remains strong in the face of adversity.
- School spirit is at an all-time high.
- The manner or style of something.
- 1897 December (indicated as 1898), Winston Churchill, chapter IV, in The Celebrity: An Episode, New York, N.Y.: The Macmillan Company; London: Macmillan & Co., Ltd., OCLC 222716698, page 46:
- No matter how early I came down, I would find him on the veranda, smoking cigarettes, or […] . And at last I began to realize in my harassed soul that all elusion was futile, and to take such holidays as I could get, when he was off with a girl, in a spirit of thankfulness.
- In the spirit of forgiveness, we didn't press charges.
- (usually in the plural) A volatile liquid, such as alcohol. The plural form spirits is a generic term for distilled alcoholic beverages.
- Energy; ardour.
- 1655, Thomas Fuller, James Nichols, editor, The Church History of Britain, […], volume (please specify |volume=I to III), new edition, London: […] [James Nichols] for Thomas Tegg and Son, […], published 1837, OCLC 913056315:
- "Write it then, quickly," replied Bede; and summoning all his spirits together, like the last blaze of a candle going out, he indited it, and expired.
- One who is vivacious or lively; one who evinces great activity or peculiar characteristics of mind or temper.
- a ruling spirit; a schismatic spirit
- (often in the plural) Temper or disposition of mind; mental condition or disposition; intellectual or moral state.
- to be cheerful, or in good spirits; to be down-hearted, or in bad spirits
- 1667, Robert South, Sermon VII
- God has […] made a spirit of building succeed a spirit of pulling down.
- (obsolete) Air set in motion by breathing; breath; hence, sometimes, life itself.
- (obsolete) A rough breathing; an aspirate, such as the letter h; also, a mark denoting aspiration.
- 1640, Ben Jonson, The English Grammar
- Be it a letter or spirit, we have great use of it.
- 1640, Ben Jonson, The English Grammar
- Intent; real meaning; opposed to the letter, or formal statement.
- the spirit of an enterprise, or of a document
- (alchemy, obsolete) Any of the four substances: sulphur, sal ammoniac, quicksilver, and arsenic (or, according to some, orpiment).
- 1387–1400, Geoffrey Chaucer, “(please specify the story)”, in The Canterbury Tales, [Westminster: William Caxton, published 1478], OCLC 230972125; republished in [William Thynne], editor, The Workes of Geffray Chaucer Newlye Printed, […], [London]: […] [Richard Grafton for] Iohn Reynes […], 1542, OCLC 932884868:
- the foure spirites and the bodyes seven
- (please add an English translation of this quote)
- (dyeing) Stannic chloride.
- community spirit
- despirit, dispirit (verbs)
- fighting spirit
- free spirit
- Holy Spirit
- in good spirits
- in spirit (adverb)
- in the spirit it was meant (idiom)
- kampong spirit, kampung spirit
- kindred spirit
- methylated spirit
- motor spirit
- moving spirit
- party spirit
- petroleum spirit
- poor in spirit
- proof spirit
- pyroacetic spirit
- rectified spirit
- spirit gum
- Spirit Lake
- spirit lamp
- spirit level
- spirit of hartshorn
- spirit of salt
- spirit of the law
- spirit of turpentine
- spirit of vitriol
- spirit of wine
- spirit rapper, spirit rapping
- spirit stove
- spirit world
- spirit writing
- surgical spirit
- team spirit
- that's the spirit
- the spirit is willing but the flesh is weak
- white spirit
- wood spirit
- zombie spirit
- To carry off, especially in haste, secrecy, or mystery.
- 2009 February 8, Dave Kehr, “Buñuel at His Wildest, in Circulation Again”, in New York Times:
- God does not make an appearance, but the Devil (Ms. Pinal) emphatically does: first in the guise of a schoolgirl who tries to lure Simon down with the sight of her shapely legs; then as a bearded but blatantly female Jesus carrying a lamb; and finally as a stylishly coiffed woman who succeeds in spiriting Simon off, by means of a jet, to a Manhattan discotheque — Buñuel’s persuasive idea of hell.
- 1835, Nathaniel Parker Willis, Pencillings by the Way:
- I felt as if I had been spirited into some castle of felicity.
- Sometimes followed by up: to animate with vigour; to excite; to encourage; to inspirit.
- Civil dissensions often spirit the ambition of private men.
- 1714 February, [Jonathan Swift], The Publick Spirit of the Whigs: Set forth in Their Generous Encouragement of the Author of the Crisis: […], 3rd edition, London: […] [John Barber] for John Morphew, […], published 1714, OCLC 1015508897, page 39:
- [H]e left behind many Officers and private Men, who now ſpirit-up and aſſist thoſe obſtinate People to continue in their Rebellion.
From Dutch spirit, from English spirit, from Middle English spirit, from Old French espirit (“spirit”), from Latin spīritus (“breath; spirit”), from Proto-Indo-European *(s)peys- (“to blow, breathe”). Doublet of spiritus.
- the soul of a person or other creature. What moves through experience into self-definition as souls purpose.
- a supernatural being, often but not exclusively without physical form; ghost, fairy, angel.
- (figuratively) enthusiasm, energy; ardour.
- “spirit” in Online Great Dictionary of the Indonesian Language [Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia Daring], Jakarta: Language Development and Fostering Agency — Ministry of Education, Culture, Research, and Technology of the Republic Indonesia, 2016.
spirit n (plural spirite)
- (spirit, ghost): duh
- spirit (physical form of God)