spirit

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See also: Spirit and špirit

English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle English spirit, from Old French espirit (spirit), from Latin spīritus (breath; spirit), from Proto-Indo-European *(s)peys- (to blow, breathe). Compare inspire, respire, transpire, all ultimately from Latin spīrō (I breathe, blow, respire). Displaced native Middle English gast (spirit) (from Old English gāst (spirit, ghost)), whence modern English ghost. Doublet of sprite.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (UK) IPA(key): /ˈspɪɹɪt/
  • (US) IPA(key): /ˈspiɹɪt/, /ˈspɪɹɪt/
  • (file)
  • Rhymes: -ɪɹɪt
  • Hyphenation: spir‧it

Noun[edit]

spirit (countable and uncountable, plural spirits)

  1. The soul of a person or other creature. What moves through experience into self-definition as souls purpose.
    • 1918, W. B. Maxwell, chapter 7, in The Mirror and the Lamp:
      [] St. Bede's at this period of its history was perhaps the poorest and most miserable parish in the East End of London. Close-packed, crushed by the buttressed height of the railway viaduct, rendered airless by huge walls of factories, it at once banished lively interest from a stranger's mind and left only a dull oppression of the spirit.
    • 1967, MacCormack, Woman Times Seven:
      [] a triumph of the spirit over the flesh.
  2. A supernatural being, often but not exclusively without physical form; ghost, fairy, angel.
    A wandering spirit haunts the island.
  3. Enthusiasm.
    • 2011 October 1, Phil Dawkes, “Sunderland 2-2 West Brom”, in BBC Sport:
      The result may not quite give the Wearsiders a sweet ending to what has been a sour week, following allegations of sexual assault and drug possession against defender Titus Bramble, but it does at least demonstrate that their spirit remains strong in the face of adversity.
    School spirit is at an all-time high.
  4. The manner or style of something.
    • 1898, Winston Churchill, chapter 4, in The Celebrity:
      No matter how early I came down, I would find him on the veranda, smoking cigarettes, or [] . And at last I began to realize in my harassed soul that all elusion was futile, and to take such holidays as I could get, when he was off with a girl, in a spirit of thankfulness.
    In the spirit of forgiveness, we didn't press charges.
  5. (usually in the plural) A volatile liquid, such as alcohol. The plural form spirits is a generic term for distilled alcoholic beverages.
  6. Energy; ardour.
    • 1655, Thomas Fuller, The Church History of Britain
      "Write it then, quickly," replied Bede; and summoning all his spirits together, like the last blaze of a candle going out, he indited it, and expired.
  7. One who is vivacious or lively; one who evinces great activity or peculiar characteristics of mind or temper.
    a ruling spirit; a schismatic spirit
    • 1697, John Dryden, Aeneid
      Such spirits as he desired to please, such would I choose for my judges.
  8. Temper or disposition of mind; mental condition or disposition; intellectual or moral state; often in the plural.
    to be cheerful, or in good spirits; to be down-hearted, or in bad spirits
    • 1667, Robert South, Sermon VII
      God has [] made a spirit of building succeed a spirit of pulling down.
  9. (obsolete) Air set in motion by breathing; breath; hence, sometimes, life itself.
  10. (obsolete) A rough breathing; an aspirate, such as the letter h; also, a mark denoting aspiration.
    • 1640, Ben Jonson, The English Grammar
      Be it a letter or spirit, we have great use of it.
  11. Intent; real meaning; opposed to the letter, or formal statement.
    the spirit of an enterprise, or of a document
  12. (alchemy, obsolete) Any of the four substances: sulphur, sal ammoniac, quicksilver, and arsenic (or, according to some, orpiment).
  13. (dyeing) Stannic chloride.

Derived terms[edit]

Pages starting with “spirit”.

Translations[edit]

See also[edit]

Verb[edit]

spirit (third-person singular simple present spirits, present participle spiriting, simple past and past participle spirited)

  1. To carry off, especially in haste, secrecy, or mystery.
    • 2009 February 8, Dave Kehr, “Buñuel at His Wildest, in Circulation Again”, in New York Times[1]:
      God does not make an appearance, but the Devil (Ms. Pinal) emphatically does: first in the guise of a schoolgirl who tries to lure Simon down with the sight of her shapely legs; then as a bearded but blatantly female Jesus carrying a lamb; and finally as a stylishly coiffed woman who succeeds in spiriting Simon off, by means of a jet, to a Manhattan discotheque — Buñuel’s persuasive idea of hell.
    • 1835, Nathaniel Parker Willis, Pencillings by the Way:
      I felt as if I had been spirited into some castle of felicity.
  2. Sometimes followed by up: to animate with vigour; to excite; to encourage; to inspirit.
    Civil dissensions often spirit the ambition of private men.
    • 1714 February, [Jonathan Swift], The Publick Spirit of the Whigs: Set forth in Their Generous Encouragement of the Author of the Crisis: [], 3rd edition, London: [] [John Barber] for John Morphew, [], published 1714, OCLC 1015508897, page 39:
      [H]e left behind many Officers and private Men, who now ſpirit-up and aſſist thoſe obſtinate People to continue in their Rebellion.

Derived terms[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Indonesian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Dutch spirit, from English spirit, from Middle English spirit, from Old French espirit (spirit), from Latin spīritus (breath; spirit), from Proto-Indo-European *(s)peys- (to blow, breathe). Doublet of spiritus.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): [ˈspirɪt̪̚]
  • Hyphenation: spi‧rit

Noun[edit]

spirit (plural spirit-spirit, first-person possessive spiritku, second-person possessive spiritmu, third-person possessive spiritnya)

  1. spirit:
    1. the soul of a person or other creature. What moves through experience into self-definition as souls purpose.
      Synonyms: arwah, atma, jiwa, hidup, kehidupan, nyawa, roh, sukma
    2. a supernatural being, often but not exclusively without physical form; ghost, fairy, angel.
      Synonyms: arwah, roh
    3. (figuratively) enthusiasm, energy; ardour.
      Synonyms: roh, semangat, spirit

Related terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]


Romanian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from Latin spiritus. Compare also spiriduș.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

spirit n (plural spirite)

  1. spirit, ghost
  2. essence, psyche
  3. wit, genius
  4. manner, style

Declension[edit]

Synonyms[edit]

  • (spirit, ghost): duh

Related terms[edit]

See also[edit]


Tok Pisin[edit]

Etymology[edit]

English spirit

Noun[edit]

spirit

  1. spirit (physical form of God)
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