stand

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See also: Stand, stånd, and štand

English[edit]

English Wikipedia has articles on:
Wikipedia

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /stænd/
  • (/æ/ tensing) IPA(key): [steənd]
  • (file)
  • (file)
  • Rhymes: -ænd

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English standen, stonden (verb) and stand, stond (noun, from the verb), from Old English standan (to stand, occupy a place, be valid, stand good, be, exist, take place, consist, be fixed, remain undisturbed, stand still, cease to move, remain without motion, stop, maintain one’s position, not yield to pressure, reside, abide, continue, remain, not to fall, be upheld), from Proto-Germanic *standaną (to stand), from Pre-Germanic *sth₂-n-t-´, an innovative extended n-infixed form of Proto-Indo-European *steh₂-.

Verb[edit]

stand (third-person singular simple present stands, present participle standing, simple past stood, past participle stood or (obsolete) standen or (nonstandard) stand)

A painting of a girl standing.
  1. (heading) To position or be positioned physically.
    1. (intransitive, copulative) To support oneself on the feet in an erect position.
      Here I stand, wondering what to do next.
      • 1897 December (indicated as 1898), Winston Churchill, chapter V, in The Celebrity: An Episode, New York, N.Y.: The Macmillan Company; London: Macmillan & Co., Ltd., OCLC 222716698:
        Then came a maid with hand-bag and shawls, and after her a tall young lady. She stood for a moment holding her skirt above the grimy steps, [], and the light of the reflector fell full upon her.
      • 1961 February, R. K. Evans, “The role of research on British Railways”, in Trains Illustrated, page 93:
        At one time a "standard test" for carriage riding was to stand a pencil on end on the compartment floor, or to measure how long it was possible to stand on one leg without touching the corridor walls; [...].
    2. (intransitive) To rise to one’s feet; to stand up.
      Stand up, walk to the refrigerator, and get your own snack.
    3. (intransitive, copulative) To remain motionless.
      Do not leave your car standing in the road.
    4. (intransitive) To be placed in an upright or vertical orientation.
      • 1879, R[ichard] J[efferies], chapter 1, in The Amateur Poacher, London: Smith, Elder, & Co., [], OCLC 752825175:
        They burned the old gun that used to stand in the dark corner up in the garret, close to the stuffed fox that always grinned so fiercely. Perhaps the reason why he seemed in such a ghastly rage was that he did not come by his death fairly. Otherwise his pelt would not have been so perfect.
      • 1945 August 17, George Orwell [pseudonym; Eric Arthur Blair], chapter 1, in Animal Farm: A Fairy Story, London: Secker & Warburg, OCLC 3655473:
        He seized the gun which always stood in a corner of his bedroom [].
    5. (transitive) To place in an upright or standing position.
      He stood the broom in a corner and took a break.
      • 1961 February, R. K. Evans, “The role of research on British Railways”, in Trains Illustrated, page 93:
        At one time a "standard test" for carriage riding was to stand a pencil on end on the compartment floor, or to measure how long it was possible to stand on one leg without touching the corridor walls; [...].
    6. (intransitive) To occupy or hold a place; to be set, placed, fixed, located, or situated.
      Paris stands on the Seine.
      • 1774, Edward Long, The History of Jamaica. Or, General Survey of the Antient and Modern State of that Island, volume 2, book 2, chapter 7, 6:
        The chapel ſtands on the South ſide of the ſquare, near the governor’s houſe.
      • 2017 October 2, "Las Vegas shooting: At least 58 dead at Mandalay Bay Hotel", in bbc.com, BBC:
        Las Vegas police say the number of people injured now stands at 515.
    7. (intransitive) To measure when erect on the feet.
      • 1855, Alfred Tennyson, Maud, XIII, 1. in Maud, and Other Poems, London: Edward Moxon, p. 44,[1]
        His face, as I grant, in spite of spite, / Has a broad-blown comeliness, red and white, / And six feet two, as I think, he stands;
    8. (intransitive, of tears, sweat, etc.) To be present, to have welled up.
      • c. 1591–1592, William Shakespeare, “The Third Part of Henry the Sixt, []”, in Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies [] (First Folio), London: [] Isaac Iaggard, and Ed[ward] Blount, published 1623, OCLC 606515358, [Act V, scene vi]:
        many an orphan’s water-standing eye
      • 1651, Francis Bacon, A True and Historical Relation of the Poysoning of Sir Thomas Overbury, London: John Benson & John Playford, “Sir Jervas his Confession,” p. 71,[2]
        now my heart beginneth to melt within me being wounded (with that the tears stood in his eyes) to see the faces of some here present, whom J most earnestly love, and now must depart from with shame []
      • 1722, Daniel Defoe, Moll Flanders, London: W. Chetwood & T. Edling, p. 222,[3]
        [he] pull’d me up again, and then giving me two or three Kisses again, thank’d me for my kind yielding to him; and was so overcome with the Satisfaction and Joy of it, that I saw Tears stand in his Eyes.
      • 1844, Charles Dickens, Martin Chuzzlewit, London: Chapman & Hall, Chapter 32, p. 380,[4]
        He takes me half-price to the play, to an extent which I sometimes fear is beyond his means; and I see the tears a standing in his eyes during the whole performance []
      • 1902, John Buchan, The Outgoing of the Tide
        How he escaped a broken neck in that dreadful place no human being will ever ken. The sweat, he has told me, stood in cold drops upon his forehead []
  2. (heading) To position or be positioned mentally.
    1. (intransitive, followed by to + infinitive) To be positioned to gain or lose.
      He stands to get a good price for the house.
    2. (transitive, negative) To tolerate.
      I can’t stand when people don’t read the instructions.
      I can’t stand him.
      • 1913, Joseph C. Lincoln, chapter 7, in Mr. Pratt's Patients:
        “[…] if you call my duds a ‘livery’ again there'll be trouble. It's bad enough to go around togged out like a life saver on a drill day, but I can stand that 'cause I'm paid for it. What I won't stand is to have them togs called a livery. [].”
    3. (intransitive, copulative) To maintain one's ground; to be acquitted; not to fail or yield; to be safe.
      • February 2, 1712, Joseph Addison, The Spectator No. 291
        readers by whose judgment I would stand or fall
    4. (intransitive, copulative) To maintain an invincible or permanent attitude; to be fixed, steady, or firm; to take a position in resistance or opposition.
    5. (intransitive, copulative, obsolete) To be in some particular state; to have essence or being; to be; to consist.
  3. (heading) To position or be positioned socially.
    1. (intransitive, cricket) To act as an umpire.
    2. (transitive) To undergo; withstand; hold up.
      The works of Shakespeare have stood the test of time.
    3. (intransitive, Britain) To be a candidate (in an election).
      He is standing for election to the local council.
      • 1678, Izaak Walton, The Life of Robert Sanderson
        He stood to be elected one of the proctors of the university.
    4. (intransitive) To be valid.
      What I said yesterday still stands.
    5. (transitive) To oppose, usually as a team, in competition.
      • 1957, Matt Christopher, Basketball Sparkplug, Ch.7:
        "Kim, Jack, and I will stand you guys," Jimmie Burdette said. ¶ "We'll smear you!" laughed Ron.
      • c. 1973, R. J. Childerhose, Hockey Fever in Goganne Falls, p.95:
        The game stopped while sides were sorted out. Andy did the sorting. "Okay," he said. "Jimmy is coming out. He and Gaston and Ike and me will stand you guys."
      • 1978, Louis Sachar, Sideways Stories from Wayside School, Ch.21:
        "Hey, Louis," Dameon shouted. "Do you want to play kickball?" ¶ ""All right," said Louis. "Ron and I will both play." [] ¶ "Ron and I will stand everybody!" Louis announced.
    6. (transitive) To cover the expense of; to pay for.
      to stand a round of drinks
      to stand a treat
      to stand bail (security in respect of an arrested person)
    7. (intransitive) To have or maintain a position, order, or rank; to be in a particular relation.
      Christian charity, or love, stands first in the rank of gifts.
    8. (intransitive) To be consistent; to agree; to accord.
    9. (intransitive) To appear in court.
  4. (intransitive, nautical) Of a ship or its captain, to steer, sail (in a specified direction, for a specified destination etc.).
    • 1630, John Smith, True Travels, in Kupperman 1988, p.40:
      To repaire his defects, hee stood for the coast of Calabria, but hearing there was six or seven Galleyes at Mesina hee departed thence for Malta [].
  5. (intransitive, copulative) To remain without ruin or injury.
  6. (card games) To stop asking for more cards; to keep one's hand as it has been dealt so far.
Conjugation[edit]
Usage notes[edit]
  • In older works, standen is found as a past participle of this verb; it is now archaic. The forms stooden and stand may also be found in dialectal speech; these are nonstandard.
  • (tolerate): This is almost always found in a negative form such as can’t stand, or No-one can stand… In this sense it is a catenative verb that takes the gerund -ing or infinitive to.... See Appendix:English catenative verbs.
Derived terms[edit]
Descendants[edit]
  • Ido: standar
  • Norman: stanner, sténer
  • Sranan Tongo: tan
Translations[edit]
The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout § Translations.

Noun[edit]

stand (plural stands)

  1. The act of standing.
    • October 2, 1712, Joseph Addison, The Spectator No. 499
      I took my stand upon an eminence [] to look into their several ladings.
  2. A defensive position or effort.
    The Commander says we will make our stand here.
  3. A resolute, unwavering position; firm opinion; action for a purpose in the face of opposition.
    They took a firm stand against copyright infringement.
  4. A period of performance in a given location or venue.
    They have a four-game stand at home against the Yankees.  They spent the summer touring giving 4 one-night stands a week.
  5. A device to hold something upright or aloft.
    He set the music upon the stand and began to play.  an umbrella stand;a hat-stand
  6. The platform on which a witness testifies in court; the witness stand or witness box.
    She took the stand and quietly answered questions.
  7. (historical) An area of raised seating for waiters at the stock exchange.
    • 1923, Julius E. Day, The Stockbroker's Office: Organisation, Management and Accounts (page 99)
      When a member has failed to comply with his bargains the fact is announced from one of the stands, []
    • 1934, Frances Cosgrove, Scenes for Student Actors: Dramatic Selections from New Plays (page 8)
      Just as that clock is striking now, the two waiters appear on the stands and take off their hats, as if to a corpse.
  8. A particular grove or other group of trees or shrubs.
    This stand of pines is older than the one next to it.
  9. (forestry) A contiguous group of trees sufficiently uniform in age-class distribution, composition, and structure, and growing on a site of sufficiently uniform quality, to be a distinguishable unit.
  10. A standstill, a motionless state, as of someone confused, or a hunting dog who has found game.
    • 1625, Francis Bacon, “Of Truth”, Essays
      One of the later school of the Grecians, examineth the matter, and is at a stand, to think what should be in it, that men should love lies; where neither they make for pleasure, as with poets, nor for advantage, as with the merchant; but for the lie’s sake.
    • 1819, Lord Byron, Don Juan, I.168:
      Antonia's patience now was at a stand
      "Come, come, 't is no time now for fooling there,"
      She whispered []
  11. A small building, booth, or stage, as in a bandstand or hamburger stand.
  12. A designated spot where someone or something may stand or wait.
  13. (US, dated) The situation of a shop, store, hotel, etc.
    a good, bad, or convenient stand for business
  14. (sports) Grandstand. (often in the plural)
    • 2011 November 11, Rory Houston, “Estonia 0-4 Republic of Ireland”, in RTE Sport:
      The end of the opening period was relatively quite [sic] as Vassiljev's desperate shot from well outside the penalty area flew into the stand housing the Irish supporters and then Ward's ctoss [sic] was gathered by goalkeeper Pareiko.
  15. (cricket) A partnership.
  16. (military, plural often stand) A single set, as of arms.
    • 1927, Herbert Asbury, The Gangs of New York: An Informal History of the Underworld, Paragon House (1990), →ISBN, p.170:
      The police and troops captured eleven thousand stand of arms, including muskets and pistols, together with several thousand bludgeons and other weapons.
  17. (obsolete) Rank; post; station; standing.
    • 1595, Samuel Daniel, “(please specify the folio number)”, in The First Fowre Bookes of the Ciuile Wars between the Two Houses of Lancaster and Yorke, London: [] P[eter] Short for Simon Waterson, OCLC 28470143:
      Father, since your fortune did attain / So high a stand, I mean not to descend.
  18. (dated) A state of perplexity or embarrassment.
    to be at a stand what to do
  19. A young tree, usually reserved when other trees are cut; also, a tree growing or standing upon its own root, in distinction from one produced from a scion set in a stock, either of the same or another kind of tree.
  20. A location or position where one may stand.
  21. (advertising) An advertisement filling an entire billboard, comprising many sheets of paper.
    • 1900, Marketing Communications (volume 30, page 12)
      The cost of the printing alone will average $2 a 'stand.' The sheets are about 28x42 inches and are in four colors, which means they must go through the process four times.
    • 1951, February 24, Billboard (page 52)
      Crew of 14 billers and a four-man brigade will be 10 days ahead and will use all special paper including new jungle and animal designs being prepared by Enquirer Printing Company.
      New this season will be a 20-sheet poster depicting 21 K-M elephants parading to local Chevrolet agencies. Deal calls for use of the 20-sheet on poster panels where the auto agency has space allotment. Smaller versions of the same art also will be used.
      Circulation of Kelly-Miller heralds, which last season averaged between 5,000 and 6,000 copies per stand, will be in for one of the greatest boosts this year.
  22. (fiction) A type of supernatural ability from the anime and manga series JoJo's Bizarre Adventure, named for the fact that they appear to 'stand' next to their user.
Derived terms[edit]
Terms derived from stand (noun)
Descendants[edit]
Translations[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle English stand, stande, stond, stonde, stoonde, probably from Middle Dutch stande; forms with -o- may show influence of stonden (stand, verb).

Noun[edit]

stand (plural stands)

  1. (obsolete) This term needs a definition. Please help out and add a definition, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
    • 1559, The Progresses and Public Processions of Queen Elizabeth. Among Which are Interspersed, Other Solemnities, Public Expenditures, and Remarkable Events, During the Reign of that Illustrious Princess. [], volume I, [] the Editor [John Nichols], [], published 1788, page 45:
      Item, for a ſtande of small ale - ii s.
    • 1582, Rural Economy in Yorkshire in 1641, Being the Farming and Account Books of Henry Best, of Elmswell, in the East Riding of the County of York (The Publications of the Surtees Society; volume XXXIII), Durham: [] for the Society by George Andrews, []. London: Whittaker & Co., []; T. & W. Boone, []. Edinburgh: William Blackwood and Sons, published 1857, page 172:
      [] one gialfatte, 3 stannes 3s., []
    • 1588, Martin Mar-prelate, An Epistle to the Terrible Priests of the Convocation House, London: John Petheram, published 1842, page 54:
      Therefore at length sir Iefferie bethought him of a feat whereby he might both visit the alestond, and also keepe his othe.
    • 1594, John Lyly, “Mother Bombie”, in The Complete Works of John Lyly, published 1902, page 193:
      Memp. Ile teach my wag-halter to know grapes from barley. Pris. And I mine to discerne a spigot from a faucet. Spe. And I mine, to iudge the difference between a blacke boule and a siluer goblet. Stel. And mine shall learne the oddes betweene a stand and a hogs-head; yet I cannot choose but laugh to see how my wag aunswered mee, when I stroke him for drinking sacke.
    • 1603, Thomas Dekker, “The VVonderfull Yeare”, in The Non-Dramatic Works of Thomas Dekker, volume I, published 1884, pages 123–124:
      As for the Tapſter, he fled into the Cellar, rapping out fiue or ſixe plaine Country oathes, that hée would drowne himſelfe in a moſt villanous Stand of Ale, if the ſicke Londoner ſtoode at the doore any longer.
    • 1672, Thomas Shadwell, “Epsom-Wells”, in The Works of Thomas Shadwell, volume the second, London: [] James Knapton, []; and Jacob Tonson, [], published 1720, page 196:
      I have the rareſt Stand of Ale to drink out in the Afternoon, with three or four honeſt Country-fellows;
    • 1674, A Letter from a Gentleman of the Romish Religion to His Brother, a Person of Quality of the Same Religion; Perswading Him to Go to Church, and Take Those Oaths the Law Directs, Proving the Lawfulness Thereof by Arguments Not Disagreeable to Doctrines of the Roman Church, London: [] John Starkey, page 28:
      [] that he may have leave to meet ſome few Neighbours to duſt a ſtand of Ale []
    • 1775, James Adair, The History of The American Indians; Particularly Those Nations Adjoining to the Missisippi, East and West Florida, Georgia, South and North Carolina, and Virginia: [], London: [] Edward and Charles Dilly, page 395:
      All his war ſtore of proviſions conſiſted in three ſtands of barbicued veniſon, till he had an opportunity to revenge blood, and return home.
    • a. 1791, “Tam Lin”, in Francis James Child, editor, The English and Scottish Popular Ballads, part II, Boston, Mass.: Houghton, Mifflin and Company; New York: []; The Riverside Press, Cambridge; London: Henry Stevens, [], published 1884, page 344:
      First dip me in a stand o milk, / And then a stand o water;
  2. (obsolete) A weight of from two hundred and fifty to three hundred pounds, used in weighing pitch.
Translations[edit]
References[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Danish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From the verb stande, influenced by Middle Low German stant, German Stand and (in the sense "booth") English stand.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

stand c (singular definite standen, plural indefinite stænder)

  1. position, social status, station
  2. class, rank
  3. occupation, trade, profession
  4. estate

Inflection[edit]

Noun[edit]

stand c (singular definite standen, plural indefinite stande)

  1. stand (device to hold something upright or aloft)
  2. stand (small building or booth)
  3. (uncountable) condition, repair

Inflection[edit]

Related terms[edit]

References[edit]


Dutch[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Dutch *stand, from Proto-Germanic *standaz. Related to staan.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

stand m (plural standen, diminutive standje n)

  1. posture, position, bearing
  2. rank, standing, station; class
  3. score (of a game, match)
Synonyms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]
Descendants[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From English stand.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

stand m (plural stands, diminutive standje n)

  1. stand (small building or booth)
Synonyms[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From English stand.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

stand m (plural stands)

  1. stand (A small building, booth, or stage, as in a bandstand or hamburger stand.)

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Further reading[edit]


German[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

stand

  1. first/third-person singular preterite of stehen

Gothic[edit]

Romanization[edit]

stand

  1. Romanization of 𐍃𐍄𐌰𐌽𐌳

Hungarian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From German Stand.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

stand

  1. stand, booth, stall, kiosk (a small enclosed structure, often freestanding, open on one side or with a window, used as a booth to sell newspapers, cigarettes, etc., on the street or in a market)
    Synonym: bódé
    szabadtéri standoutdoor market stall

Declension[edit]

Inflection (stem in -o-, back harmony)
singular plural
nominative stand standok
accusative standot standokat
dative standnak standoknak
instrumental standdal standokkal
causal-final standért standokért
translative standdá standokká
terminative standig standokig
essive-formal standként standokként
essive-modal
inessive standban standokban
superessive standon standokon
adessive standnál standoknál
illative standba standokba
sublative standra standokra
allative standhoz standokhoz
elative standból standokból
delative standról standokról
ablative standtól standoktól
non-attributive
possessive - singular
standé standoké
non-attributive
possessive - plural
standéi standokéi
Possessive forms of stand
possessor single possession multiple possessions
1st person sing. standom standjaim
2nd person sing. standod standjaid
3rd person sing. standja standjai
1st person plural standunk standjaink
2nd person plural standotok standjaitok
3rd person plural standjuk standjaik

References[edit]

  1. ^ Tótfalusi, István. Idegenszó-tár: Idegen szavak értelmező és etimológiai szótára (’A Storehouse of Foreign Words: an explanatory and etymological dictionary of foreign words’). Budapest: Tinta Könyvkiadó, 2005. →ISBN

Further reading[edit]


Italian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From English stand.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

stand m (invariable)

  1. stand, booth, stall, pavilion (at a fair)
  2. stand, gallery (at a sporting event)
  3. stand, case (in a store, supermarket)
  4. stall (at a shooting range)

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ stand in Luciano Canepari, Dizionario di Pronuncia Italiana (DiPI)

Further reading[edit]

  • stand in Treccani.it – Vocabolario Treccani on line, Istituto dell'Enciclopedia Italiana

Norwegian Bokmål[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From the old verb stande (replaced by stå), and English stand (sense 3)

Noun[edit]

stand m (definite singular standen, indefinite plural stander, definite plural standene)

  1. condition, order, state
  2. height, level, reading
  3. a stand (e.g. at an exhibition)

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]


Norwegian Nynorsk[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From the old verb stande (replaced by stå).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

stand m (definite singular standen, indefinite plural standar, definite plural standane)

  1. condition, order, state
  2. height, level, reading
Derived terms[edit]
Related terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From German Stand. Doublet of Etymology 1.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

stand m (plural standen)

  1. (historical) an estate (social class)
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

From English stand. Doublet of Etymology 1.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

stand m (definite singular standen, indefinite plural standar, definite plural standane)

  1. a stand (e.g. at an exhibition)

References[edit]


Old English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *standaz.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

stand m

  1. (rare) delay

Declension[edit]


Old High German[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *standaz, whence also Old English stand.

Noun[edit]

stand m

  1. stand (clarification of this definition is needed)

Portuguese[edit]

Noun[edit]

stand m (plural stands)

  1. Alternative form of estande

Romanian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from French stand, from English stand.

Noun[edit]

stand n (plural standuri)

  1. stand

Declension[edit]


Spanish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From English stand.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈstand/, [ˈst̪ãn̪d̪]
  • IPA(key): /esˈtand/, [esˈt̪ãn̪d̪]

Noun[edit]

stand m (plural stands)

  1. stand (enclosed structure in the street)

Related terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]