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See also: súmmum




  1. dative form of summur: some



summum m (plural summums)

  1. summit, apogee, acme



Noun use of neuter of summus.



summum n (genitive summī); second declension

  1. top
  2. summit


Second declension.

Case Singular Plural
nominative summum summa
genitive summī summōrum
dative summō summīs
accusative summum summa
ablative summō summīs
vocative summum summa




  1. nominative neuter singular of summus


  • summum in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • summum in Charles du Fresne du Cange’s Glossarium Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (augmented edition, 1883–1887)
  • summum in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire Illustré Latin-Français, Hachette
  • Carl Meissner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • (ambiguous) a gentle ascent: collis leniter ab infimo acclivis (opp. leniter a summo declivis)
    • (ambiguous) the surface of the water: summa aqua
    • (ambiguous) in the height of summer, depth of winter: summa aestate, hieme
    • (ambiguous) the position is very critical: res in summo discrimine versatur
    • (ambiguous) to be entirely destitute; to be a beggar: in summa egestate or mendicitate esse
    • (ambiguous) to be bound by the closest ties of friendship: artissimo amicitiae vinculo or summa familiaritate cum aliquo coniunctum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be in a dignified position: dignitas est summa in aliquo
    • (ambiguous) to be in a dignified position: summa dignitate praeditum esse
    • (ambiguous) to praise, extol, commend a person: (maximis, summis) laudibus efferre aliquem or aliquid
    • (ambiguous) to have reached the highest pinnacle of eminence: summa gloria florere
    • (ambiguous) to bring to the highest perfection: ad summum perducere
    • (ambiguous) to attain perfection: ad perfectionem, (ad summum) pervenire
    • (ambiguous) ideal perfection: absolutio et perfectio (not summa perfectio)
    • (ambiguous) to be an ardent student of..: summo studio in litteris versari
    • (ambiguous) to possess rich mental endowments: summo ingenio praeditum esse
    • (ambiguous) unanimously: uno, communi, summo or omnium consensu (Tusc. 1. 15. 35)
    • (ambiguous) the learned men are most unanimous in..: summa est virorum doctissimorum consensio (opp. dissensio)
    • (ambiguous) a master-piece of classical work: opus summo artificio[TR1] factum
    • (ambiguous) to depict a thing in lively colours: summo colore aliquid illustrare
    • (ambiguous) to consider virtue the highest good: summum bonum in virtute ponere
    • (ambiguous) to honour the gods with all due ceremonial (very devoutly): deum rite (summa religione) colere
    • (ambiguous) to stand in very intimate relations to some one: summa necessitudine aliquem contingere
    • (ambiguous) to be in severe pecuniary straits: in summa difficultate nummaria versari (Verr. 2. 28. 69)
    • (ambiguous) the welfare of the state: summa res publica (or summa rei publicae)
    • (ambiguous) of high rank: summo loco natus
    • (ambiguous) high and low: summi (et) infimi (Rep. 1. 34. 53)
    • (ambiguous) to proceed against some one with the utmost rigour of the law; to strain the law in one's favour: summo iure agere cum aliquo (cf. summum ius, summa iniuria)
    • (ambiguous) the command-in-chief: summa belli, imperii (B. G. 2. 4. 7)
    • (ambiguous) the position is critical: res est in periculo, in summo discrimine
    • (ambiguous) deep peace: summa pax
    • (ambiguous) legitimately; with the fullest right: optimo iure (cf. summo iure, sect. XV. 1).