till

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See also: 'till and Till

English[edit]

English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

Pronunciation[edit]

  • enPR: tĭl, IPA(key): /tɪl/
  • (file)
  • Rhymes: -ɪl

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English til, from Northern Old English til, from or akin to Old Norse til (to, till); both from Proto-Germanic *til (to, toward), from Proto-Germanic *tilą (planned point in time).[1][2] Not a shortening of until; rather, until comes from till with the prefix un- (against; toward; up to) also found in unto. Cognate with Old Frisian til (to, till), Danish til (to), Swedish till (to, till), Icelandic til (to, till). Also related to Old English til (good), German Ziel (goal), Gothic 𐍄𐌹𐌻 (til, something fitting or suitable).

Preposition[edit]

till

  1. Until; to, up to; as late as (a given time).
    She stayed till the very end.
    It's twenty till two. (1:40)
    I have to work till eight o'clock tonight.
    • 1854, Prof. John Wilson, The Genius and Character of Burns, page 194:
      Similar sentiments will recur to everyone familiar with his writings all through them till the very end.
    • 1946 May and June, G. A. Sekon, “L.B.S.C.R. West Coast Section—3”, in Railway Magazine, page 148:
      The line was authorised on June 23, 1864, but not opened till July 11, 1881.
    • 2019 March 14, Ramzy Baroud, “Chasing mirages: What are Palestinians doing to combat ‘Deal of the Century’?”, in Ma'an News[1], archived from the original on 30 March 2019:
      While the PA has not always seen eye-to-eye with US foreign policy, its survival remained, till recently, a top American priority.
  2. (obsolete, dialect) To, up to (physically).
    They led him till his tent
    • 1599, William Shakespeare (attributed), The Passionate Pilgrim:
      She, poor bird, as all forlorn / Lean'd her breast up-till a thorn / And there sung the dolefull'st ditty, / To to hear it was great pity.
    • 1806, “Lord Wa'Yates and Auld Ingram”, in Robert Jameson, editor, Popular Ballads and Songs, volume 2:
      And till the kirk she wadna gae, / nor till't she wadna ride, / Till four-and-twenty men she gat her before, / And twenty on ilka side
    • 1838, “The Outlaw Murray”, in Walter Scott, editor, Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border:
      For a king to gang an outlaw till / Is beneath his state and his dignitie.
  3. (obsolete, dialect) To, toward (in attitude).
    • 1861, E. J. Guerin, Mountain Charley, page 20:
      "Here's at you old hoss!" hiccupped I, with a friendly pitch in the way of a nod at Rice.
      "Go it, young grampus, that's me! Here's till ye, my infant progidy!" replied he, as he clinked his glass against mine.
    • 1902, John Buchan, The Outgoing of the Tide:
      And then she changed her voice and would be as saft as honey: 'My puir wee Ailie, was I thrawn till ye? Never mind, my bonnie. You and me are a' that's left, and we maunna be ill to ither.'
  4. (dialectal) To make it possible that.
    • 1953?, Samuel Beckett, Waiting for Godot
      VLADIMIR: Together again at last! We'll have to celebrate this. But how? (He reflects.) Get up till I embrace you.
Usage notes[edit]

The preposition till is ubiquitous in informal register in modern English; nonetheless, in formal register it is often replaced with until or to, except for in some varieties, such as Indian English. This predisposition is likely influenced by the widespread misapprehension that till is a "corruption" of 'til, although it is not. In fact 'til itself is also deprecated by some writers because its apostrophe was born of that same misapprehension.

Synonyms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]
Translations[edit]

Conjunction[edit]

till

  1. Until, until the time that.
    Maybe you can, maybe you can't: you won't know till you try.
    • 1611, The Holy Bible, [] (King James Version), London: [] Robert Barker, [], →OCLC, Song of Solomon 2:7:
      I charge you, O ye daughters of Ierusalem, by the Roes, and by the hindes of the field, that ye stirre not vp, nor awake my loue, till she please.
    • 1846, Edward Lear, The Book of Nonsense:
      She twirled round and round, / Till she sunk underground, []
    • 1912, anonymous, Punky Dunk and the Mouse, P.F. Volland & Co.:
      And the Mouse sat and laughed till he cried.
Synonyms[edit]
Translations[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle English tylle (till), possibly from Middle English tillen (to draw) from Old English *tyllan (to draw, attract) (as in betyllan (to lure, decoy) and fortyllan (to draw away); related to *tollian > Middle English tollen). Cognate with Albanian ndjell (I lure, attract).

Alternatively, Middle English tylle is from Anglo-Norman tylle (compartment), from Old French tille (compartment, shelter on a ship), from Old Norse þilja (plank).

Noun[edit]

till (plural tills)

  1. A cash register.
  2. A removable box within a cash register containing the money.
    Pull all the tills and lock them in the safe.
    • 2023 July 26, Pip Dunn, “Merseyrail '777s' are OK for commuters”, in RAIL, number 988, page 59:
      That said, and I'll put this down to its newness, the bin lid was a bit snappy, like Arkwright's till (google that it you're a youngster).
  3. The contents of a cash register, for example at the beginning or end of the day or of a cashier's shift.
    My count of my till was 30 dollars short.
  4. A cash drawer in a bank, used by a teller.
  5. (obsolete) A tray or drawer in a chest.
Derived terms[edit]
Translations[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

From Middle English tilyen, from Old English tilian.

Verb[edit]

till (third-person singular simple present tills, present participle tilling, simple past and past participle tilled)

  1. (transitive) To develop so as to improve or prepare for usage; to cultivate (said of knowledge, virtue, mind etc.).
  2. (transitive) To work or cultivate or plough (soil); to prepare for growing vegetation and crops.
  3. (intransitive) To cultivate soil.
  4. (obsolete) To prepare; to get.
    • 1614, William Browne, The Shepherd's Pipe:
      Nor knowes a trappe nor snare to till
Quotations[edit]
Translations[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

Unknown, but possibly via etymology 3 (the verb) because alluvial deposit is used as a fertilizer.

Noun[edit]

English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

till

  1. glacial drift consisting of a mixture of clay, sand, pebbles and boulders
  2. (dialect) manure or other material used to fertilize land
Derived terms[edit]
Translations[edit]

Etymology 5[edit]

From Middle English tylle; shortened from lentile (English lentil).

Noun[edit]

till (plural tills)

  1. A vetch; a tare.

References[edit]

General
Footnotes
  1. ^ Kroonen, Guus. 2013. Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic
  2. ^ Douglas Harper (2001–2023), “till”, in Online Etymology Dictionary.

Anagrams[edit]

Estonian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Low German dille.

Noun[edit]

till (genitive tilli, partitive tilli)

  1. dill (herb)
  2. (slang) penis

Declension[edit]

References[edit]

Middle English[edit]

Verb[edit]

till

  1. Alternative form of tillen (to enthrall)

Scottish Gaelic[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

till (past thill, future tillidh, verbal noun tilleadh, past participle tillte)

  1. to return, come back
  2. to relapse
    Thill ris.He has got a relapse.

References[edit]

  • A Pronouncing and Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language (John Grant, Edinburgh, 1925, Compiled by Malcolm MacLennan)

Swedish[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Swedish til, from Old Norse til, from Proto-Germanic *tila- (goal), from Proto-Indo-European *ád (near, at).

Pronunciation[edit]

Preposition[edit]

till

  1. to
    Välkommen till Sverige!
    Welcome to Sweden
    Ge den till mig.
    Give it to me.
    Vi behöver två till fem nya datorer.
    We need two to five new computers.
  2. for
    en bra TV till ett bra pris
    a good TV for a good price
    Vad vill du ha till middag?
    What do you want for dinner?
    en present till min syster
    a present for my sister
    pengar till resan
    money for the trip
  3. with
    Jag tar mjölk till mitt kaffe
    I take milk with my coffee
  4. at (the next, timewise)
    Till sommaren ska vi åka på semester till Island
    This summer (the upcoming summer), we're going on vacation to Iceland

Usage notes[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Adverb[edit]

till

  1. another, more; in addition
    Jag vill ha en/två till
    I want another one / two more
    Jag ska vara här en vecka till
    I'll be here for another week
  2. Expresses something happening suddenly and for a short duration, when added after certain verbs. The examples below are for illustration and not comprehensive. Fairly productive for verbs where suddenness and short duration make intuitive sense.
    Han skrattadeHe laughed
    Han skrattade tillHe chuckled
    Han hoppadeHe jumped
    Han hoppade tillHe flinched
    Han somnadeHe fell asleep
    Han somnade tillHe nodded off
    Han slog honomHe hit him
    Han slog till honomHe gave him a punch (fairly synonymous, but makes it clear that it's a single punch and sounds a bit more intense)
    Han syntesHe was visible
    Han syntes tillHe was spotted
  3. Expresses (completely or partially) changing or creating something through the action of a verb, similar to English up. Sometimes more or less redundant like in English, with a similar difference in tone.
    Synonym: (sometimes) för-
    fulugly
    fula tillugly up (uglify)
    fula till någotugly something up
    knäppa till jackanbutton up one's jacket ("till" skippable, like in English)
    laga till en måltidcook up a meal ("till" skippable, like in English)
    träwood
    träa till"wood up" (make woodier or the like, as an ad-hoc formation, which usually sound colloquial like in English)
  4. (in some phrasal verbs) (into) existence
    bli till
    come into being ("become into existence")
    komma till
    come about ("come into existence")
  5. to a toward orientation
    vända andra kinden till (idiom)
    turn the other cheek [toward]

Usage notes[edit]

The stress is on till, which helps disambiguate.

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

Wolof[edit]

Noun[edit]

till (definite form till gi)

  1. jackal

Yola[edit]

Preposition[edit]

till

  1. Alternative form of del
    • 1867, “THE WEDDEEN O BALLYMORE”, in SONGS, ETC. IN THE DIALECT OF FORTH AND BARGY, number 6:
      To our pleoughès an mulk-pylès till a neeshte holy die.
      To our ploughs and our milk-pails till the next holiday.

References[edit]

  • Jacob Poole (1867), William Barnes, editor, A Glossary, With some Pieces of Verse, of the old Dialect of the English Colony in the Baronies of Forth and Bargy, County of Wexford, Ireland, London: J. Russell Smith, page 96