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From Proto-Italic *wedro- ‎(glass), from Proto-Indo-European *wed-ro- ‎(water-like), from *wódr̥ ‎(water), whence also Latin unda ‎(water). Compare semantic parallel in Middle Iranian where "glass" is also derived from "water": Middle Persian ʾp̄ḵynk' ‎(ābgēnag, crystal, glass), compound of ʾp̄ ‎(āb, water) + -kyn' ‎(-gēn) + -k' ‎(-ag) > Persian آبگینه ‎(ābgīna, glass), Sogdian ʾʾpkyn-, ʾʾpkynʾk ‎(crystal), Ossetian авг ‎(avg) (Iron) / авгæ ‎(avgæ, glass; bottle) (Digor). Compare also Old Armenian ապակի ‎(apaki) and Hungarian üveg ‎(glass; bottle). The plant and its dye were named after the color of glass in antiquity.



vitrum n ‎(genitive vitrī); second declension

  1. glass
    Mihi dicendum est de materia, ex qua vitrum conficitur.
  2. a woad; a plant used for dying blue
  3. woad; a blue dye used by the Britons made from that plant


Second declension.

Case Singular Plural
nominative vitrum vitra
genitive vitrī vitrōrum
dative vitrō vitrīs
accusative vitrum vitra
ablative vitrō vitrīs
vocative vitrum vitra


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  • vitrum in Charlton T. Lewis & Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • vitrum in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • VITRUM in Charles du Fresne du Cange’s Glossarium Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (augmented edition, 1883–1887)
  • vitrum” in Félix Gaffiot (1934), Dictionnaire Illustré Latin-Français, Paris: Hachette.
  • vitrum in Harry Thurston Peck, editor (1898) Harper's Dictionary of Classical Antiquities, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • vitrum in William Smith et al., editor (1890) A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, London: William Wayte. G. E. Marindin
  • De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 684
  • Andrew Sihler, New Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin, OUP, 1995, page 212