Appendix:Finnish nominal inflection/hame

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KOTUS type 48 (hame) NSK types 78 (hame), 79 (terve), 80 (ori) and 81 (kiiru)

Nominals ending with -e; inverted consonant gradation possible.

This is the most common form of -e declension, but see nalle for personal names. The inflectional stem is formed by adding an e and strengthening the final consonant.

Partitive ending -(t)ta/-(t)tä and genitive plural ending -den/-tten.

Basic declension without consonant gradation[edit]

back vowels
(contains a, o or u)
front vowels
(no a, o or u)

Consonant gradation[edit]

Unusually, for gradation purposes nominals of this type act as if there was a consonant after the final -e of the nominative singular, as in vieras; thus the base form is weak. The long -ee- of the inflectional stem means that all cases other than the nominative and partitive singular are in the strong form.


grade k → kk p → pp t → tt ∅ → k v → p d → t mm → mp ll → lt nn → nt rr → rt j → k
nominative weak savuke ape peite aie taive sade lumme kimalle vanne aarre lahje
genitive strong savukkeen appeen peitteen aikeen taipeen sateen lumpeen kimalteen vanteen aarteen lahkeen
partitive weak savuketta apetta peitettä aietta taivetta sadetta lummetta kimalletta vannetta aarretta lahjetta
elative strong savukkeesta appeesta peitteestä aikeesta taipeesta sateesta lumpeesta kimalteesta vanteesta aarteesta lahkeesta
illative strong savukkeeseen appeeseen peitteeseen aikeeseen taipeeseen sateeseen lumpeeseen kimalteeseen vanteeseen aarteeseen lahkeeseen

Complete declension example with consonant gradation (t → d)[edit]

singular plural
nominative sade sateet
genitive sateen sateiden
partitive sadetta sateita
accusative sade
inessive sateessa sateissa
elative sateesta sateista
illative sateeseen sateisiin
adessive sateella sateilla
ablative sateelta sateilta
allative sateelle sateille
essive sateena sateina
translative sateeksi sateiksi
instructive satein
abessive sateetta sateitta
comitative sateineen
1) Rare.