Appendix:Norwegian pronunciation

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This is a guide to pronunciation of Norwegian.

Consonants[edit]

Plosives[edit]

Phoneme Transcription, example and translation
p par, /par:/ /pɑːr/, "pair; couple"
b bok, /buːk/, "book"
t tam, /tam:/, "tame"
ʈ vært, /ʋæʈ/, "been"
d dam, /dam:/, "pond"
ɖ burde, /'bʉɖə/, "should; ought to"
k katt, /kat/, "cat"
g god, /guːd/, "good"

/p, t, k/ are all aspirated and pronounced almost identical to the equivalent English sounds. /b, d, g/ are distinctly voiced, moreso than the English equivalents of most dialects.

Fricatives[edit]

Phoneme Transcription, example and translation
f fot, /fuːt/, "foot"
ʋ våt, /ʋoːt/, "wet"
s sol, /suːl/, "sun"
ʃ sju, /ʃʉː/, "seven"
ç kjapp, /çap/, "fast"
j jord, /juːɖ/, "soil"
h han, /hɑn/, "he"

/r/[edit]

Phoneme Transcription, example and translation
r rød, /røːd/, "red"

The pronunciation of /r/ varies in the various dialects. In eastern dialects the pronunciation is more forward, [r] or [ɾ] while the pronunciation in western dialects is further back, [ʁ] [χ].

In most dialects /s, t, d, n, l/ merge with /r/ into retroflex assimilations [ʂ, ɖ, ʈ, ɳ, ɭ].

Laterals[edit]

Phoneme Transcription, example and translation
l /luːv/, "tack"

Nasals[edit]

Phoneme Transcription, example and translation
m /mn/, "man"
n
ŋ /lɑŋ/, "long"

Vowels[edit]

Long vowels
Phoneme Transcription, example and translation
ʉː
ɛː
ɑː
øː
Short vowels
Phoneme Transcription, example and translation
ɪ
ʏ
ʉ
v
ɛ
a
ɔ
ʊ
Diphthongs
Phoneme Transcription, example and translation
ɑɪ
æʉ
æɪ
ɔʏ
øʏ