Appendix:Proto-Austronesian monosyllabic roots

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The following are monosyllabic Proto-Austronesian roots reconstructed by John Wolff (1999) and E.M. Kempler Cohen (1999). Other papers on Austronesian root theory include Blust (1988), Zorc (1990), and Nothofer (1991).

Wolff (1999)[edit]

The monosyllabic Proto-Austronesian roots below are reconstructed by John Wolff (Wolff 1999).

Forms which can be reconstructed as monosyllables with a great deal of certainty[edit]

  • *baw 'up, above'
  • *bay 'woman'
  • *beg 'spool, wind'
  • *bit 'carry in fingers'
  • *buñ 'fontanelle'
  • *but 'pluck out'
  • *dem 'think, brood'
  • *gem 'first, hold in fist'
  • *ɣiq 'Imperata cylindrica'
  • *kan 'eat'
    • *si-kan 'fish, what is eaten with staple'
    • *pa-kan 'feed, weft'
    • *paN-kan 'eat, feed'
  • *kub
    • *kubkub 'cover over'
    • *takub 'cover over in a cupped way' (where *ta- is a fossilized prefix)
  • *lid
    • *belit 'wind'
    • *bilid 'wind, twist, or fold s.t. over'
    • *pulid 'turn round'
  • *luk 'concave bend'
  • *lum 'ripe'
  • *nem 'six'
  • *ñam 'taste'
  • *ñeŋ 'look, stare'
  • *ŋa 'agape (mouth)'
    • *kaŋa 'be open (as mouth)'
    • *baŋa 'gap, stand open'
    • *binaŋa (< -in- + baŋa) / *minaŋa 'mouth of river'
    • *beŋa 'be agape'
    • *búŋa 'flower'
    • *paŋa 'forking'
    • *ʃaŋa 'branch'
  • *pan 'bait'
  • *pat 'four'
  • *peʃ 'squeeze, deflate'
  • *pit
    • *kepit 'pinched together'
  • *pu 'grandparent/child'
  • *put 'blow'
  • *ʃaw 'wash, rinse off, dunk'
  • *ʃay 'who?'
  • *ʃek 'stuff, fill chock full'
  • *ʃeŋ 'stop up'
  • *ʃep 'suck'
  • *ʃuk 'go in, throuɣ'
  • *taw 'man'
  • *tay 'bridge'
    • *matay 'die'
    • *patay 'dead, kill'
  • *tuk 'strike, peck, beak'

Sequences which are likely (or nay have been) monosyllabic roots, but cannot be unequivocally reconstructed[edit]

  • *baŋ 'fly'
  • *bu 'fish trap'
  • *buʃ 'puff, blow out' (not well attested; most monosyllables occur in Oceanic languages)
  • *dañ 'old (of things)'
  • *daŋ 'heat near a fire'
  • *dem 'dark, cloudy'
    • *padem 'extinguish'
  • *diʃ 'cut, lance'
  • *ka 'elder sibling'
  • *kid 'file, rasp'
  • *lag 'spread out'
    • *belag 'spread out'
    • *pálag 'palm of hand'
    • *qelag 'wing'
  • *laŋ 'placed lengthwise'
    • *galaŋ 'wedge, s.t. placed underneath to support'
    • *halaŋ 'lie athwart, bar, be an obstacle'
  • *leb 'for water to come over s.t.'
  • *lem - reflexes variously mean 'night' or 'darkness'
  • *luñ
    • *luluñ 'roll up'
    • *baluñ 'fold over, wrap'
  • *muɣuɣ 'gargle, einse out mouth' (monosyllabic status is weak)
  • *pak 'make a sound of 'pak', wings (from the sound)'
  • *tan 'set trap'
  • *taʃ 'top'
  • *tuk 'top, summit'
  • *tun 'lead on a rope'

Reconstructed doubled monosyllables phonologically but which cannot be proven to be monosyllabic roots[edit]

  • *baba 'carry on back'
  • *bakbak 'remove outer layer of skin, bark'
  • *baqbaq 'mouth'
  • *bañbañ 'kind of reed used for mats, Donax canniformis'
  • *bekbek 'pulverize'
  • *biɣbiɣ 'lips (lip-like growth)'
  • *biŋbiŋ 'hold, guide'
  • *biʃbiʃ 'sprinkle'
  • *buɣ(buɣ) 'broken into small pieces'
  • *buñbuñ 'down, body hair' (only in Taiwan and the Philippines; probably not PAn)
  • *dabdab 'set fire to'
  • *dakdak 'slam s.t. down' (only in the Philippines)
  • *dasdas 'chest'
  • *debdeb 'chest'
  • *diŋdiŋ 'wall'
  • *diqdiq 'boil'
  • *gapgap 'feel, grope'
  • *ɣaʃɣaʃ 'scratched'
  • *idid 'move rapidly in small motions' (e.g., 'fan')
  • *jutjut 'pull at'
  • *kaŋkaŋ 'spread the legs' (only in the Philippines and western Indonesia)
    • *bakaŋ 'bow-legged'
    • *kaqkaq 'split, torn, with intestines'
    • *keŋkeŋ 'rigid, tight'
  • *kepkep 'clasp'
    • *dakep 'catch'
    • *ʃikep 'catch s.t. moving, tight'
  • *kiskis 'scrape off'
  • *kiʃkiʃ 'grate, file'
  • *kudkud 'grate, rasp, scratch out'
  • *kañuskus 'fingernail'
  • *kuʃkuʃ 'rub, scrape'
  • *laplap 'flapping, loose (like skin on newborn)' (only in Paiwan and Philippine languages)
  • *mekmek 'fragments'
  • *neknek 'gnat, fruit fly'
  • *nemnem 'think'
  • *palaqpaq 'frond'
  • *pejpej 'press together'
  • *ququ 'crab'
  • *sapsap 'grope'
  • *ʃaʃa 'collect palm leaves for thatching'
  • *ʃakʃak 'beat, chop'
  • *ʃelʃel 'regret'
  • *ʃelʃel 'insert, cram in'
  • *ʃiʃi 'kind of mollusk'
  • *ʃikʃik 'search through thoroughly (as for lice)'
  • *ʃuʃu 'breast, teat'
  • *ʃuɣʃuɣ 'follow behind'
  • *ʃuŋʃuŋ 'go against' (only in the Philippines and western Indonesia)
  • *taktak 'fall, drop'
  • *tamtam 'smack lips' or taste'
  • *taʃtaʃ 'rent, break thread'
    • *bútaʃ 'hole'
    • *ɣetaʃ 'break through, break open'
    • *teʃteʃ 'rip open'
  • *tutu 'strike'
  • *waqwaq 'channel'
  • *witwit 'swinging to and fro'

Sequences which occur as final syllables over a wide area but which cannot be reconstructed as a monosyllabic root[edit]

  • *buk
    • *dabuk 'ashes'
    • *dábuk 'beat to pulp'
    • *ɣabuk 'pulverized'
    • *qabuk 'dust'
    • *bun 'heap, stack'
    • *subun 'heap, pile'
    • *timbun / *tábun (?) 'heap'
  • *bun 'dew mist'
    • *ɣábun 'fog'
  • *buq 'add, increase'
    • *tubuq 'grow, shoot'
  • *duŋ 'protect, shelter'
  • *ket
    • *deket 'near'
    • *jeket 'stick'
    • *ñiket / ñaŋket 'sticky'
    • *ñiket 'sticky substance'
    • *siket 'tie'
  • *kuŋ
    • *bekuŋ 'arch'
    • *dekuŋ 'bent'
    • *leŋkuŋ 'bent'
  • *kup
    • *aŋkup 'put in cupped hands'
    • *tukup 'cover'
  • *kut
    • *dakut 'take in hand'
    • *ɣakut 'tie together'
    • *ʃaŋkut 'caught on a hook'
  • *laq
    • *telaq / *kelaq 'crack' or 'split'
    • *belaq 'cleft'
  • *liŋ
    • *baliŋ 'wind around, turn s.t. around'
    • *biliŋ 'turning round'
    • *giliŋ 'roll over s.t.'
    • *guliŋ 'roll up'
    • *paliŋ 'wind around' or 'turn body'
  • *liw
    • *baliw 'return, go back'
    • *ʃaliw 'give in exchange'
  • *luʃ 'slip' or 'slippery' or 'smooth'
  • *naw
    • *línaw 'calm, unroiled'
    • *tiqenaw 'clear'
  • *ŋaw
    • *baŋaw 'bedbug'
    • *láŋaw 'fly'
    • *tuŋaw 'kind of mite causing itch'
  • *ŋet
    • *qaŋet 'warm'
    • *ʃeŋet 'sharp, stinger'
    • *ʃeŋet 'acrid in smell'
  • *paɣ 'be flat'
    • *dampaɣ / *lampaɣ / *dapaɣ / *lapaɣ 'be flat'
    • *sampaɣ 'mat, spread out'
  • *puŋ 'cluster, bunch'
  • *taɣ
    • *dataɣ 'flat area'

Cohen (1999)[edit]

The monosyllabic Proto-Austronesian roots below are reconstructed by E.M. Kempler Cohen (Cohen 1999).

Cohen's Uniform-Root (UR) thesis states that "in the evolution from the primordial ancestor to and through early Austronesian, all wordbases and affixes were coined exclusively from CVC morphemes" (Cohen 1999:13, 53).

There are also four ancillary hypotheses to the Uniform-Root thesis (Cohen 1999:13):

  1. Merging was a highly productive coining method
  2. All canonical forms of etyma began and ended with a consonant, and consisted of consonant-vowel alternations except only where reduplication affected consecutive consonants.
  3. Each pre-nasalized consonant was a unit phoneme.
  4. Phonemic gradation was a highly productive coining method.

In Cohen's orthography (early Austronesian phoneme-circuits) (Cohen 1999:8):

  • K = back (velar, uvular, glottal, etc.) consonants
  • J = palatal and alveolar (except lateral) consonants
  • L = liquid consonants: /l, r, R/
  • P = labial consonants: /m, p, b, B, w/
  • V = vowels

Note that the roots given in the last four sections ("supposed roots" sections) are not supported by Cohen. Instead he rebuts them with alternative CVC roots.

Early Austronesian morphemes reconstructed under the Uniform-Root thesis[edit]

Note: Subscript numbers indicate that the roots may be identical. Underlining indicates that the morpheme may be identical with, rather than derived from, the other morpheme which it is nested under.

KVK[edit]

Onomatopoeic
  • **KVK 'reverberating sound, outcry'
  • **KaK 'to cry out'
  • **KiK 'to cry out (in a high pitch)'
    • **KVK 'scrape against'
      • **KVK 'to connect/fit with, fasten,, besides, and'
        • **KVK 'to hold fast, be firm'
    • **KVK 'to heat, burn'
      • **KVK 'to glow, be bright'
Visage-verbalized
  • **KVK 'act of opening the mouth/gaping/gasping'
    • **KVK 'open-mouthed, dumb, speechless, confused'
    • **KVK 'to open up, move apart, fissure'
  • **ni? 'act of showing the teeth'

KVJ[edit]

Onomatopoeic
  • **gis 'sound of tearing/breaking off'
    • **KVJ (?) 'to remove, open'
  • **nut 'sound of mumbling/grumbling'
  • **KVJ1 'sound of wheezing/sniffling/blowing the nose'
  • **KVJ2 'sound uttered due to constriction'
    • **KVJ 'to bind, enclose'
      • **keC 'adhesive, sticky'
      • **KVJ (?) 'obscured, overcast'
  • **KVJ3 'rhythymic/spasmodic sound, tapping, throbbing'
    • **KVJ 'to flicker, jerk, blink; startled'
Visage-verbalized
  • **nis
  • **ñut
    • **KVJ (?)
  • ** KVJ
      • **KVJ (?)
        • **KVJ
        • **KVJ
      • **KVJ
        • **KVJ
      • **KVJ
        • **KVJ

KVL[edit]

Onomatopoeic
  • **KVL1
    • **KVL
  • **KVL2
    • **KVL
      • **KVL
      • **KVL
      • **KVL
  • **KVL3
    • **KVL
    • **KVL
    • **KVL
      • **KVL

KVP[edit]

Onomatopoeic
  • **(ñ,n)eP
    • **KVP
    • **ñaw
  • **Kaw
  • **KV(b,p)
    • **KVP
      • **gem 'to grasp'
      • **KV(b,p)
Visage-verbalized
  • **num 'ack of drinking'
  • **Ka(b,p)
    • **KVP

JVK[edit]

Onomatopoeic
  • **JVK1
    • **JVK
  • **JVK2
    • **JVK
    • **JVK
    • **JVK
      • **JVK
      • **JVK
      • **JVK (?)
  • **JVK3
    • **JVK (?)
  • **JVK4
  • **JVK5
    • **JVK
    • **JVK
    • **JVK
Visage-verbalized
  • **Den
    • **JVK
      • **JaK
      • **ten
      • **teg
      • **tu?
      • **(t,s)uk
  • **JiK 'act of showing the teeth/gums'

JVJ[edit]

Onomatopoeic
  • **JVJ
    • **JVJ
    • **JVJ
      • **JVJ
      • **JVJ
      • **JVJ
    • **JVJ
Visage-verbalized
  • **zVz 'act of curling the upper lip, showing the teeth/gums'

JVL[edit]

Onomatopoeic
  • **JVL1
    • **JVL
      • **z(i,e)r
        • JVL
    • **JVL
  • **JVL2
    • JVL
Visage-verbalized
  • **Jir

JVP[edit]

Onomatopoeic
  • **JV(b,p)
    • **JV(b,p)
    • **JV(b,p)
    • **JV(b,p) (?)
    • **JV(b,p)
    • **JVP
      • **JVP
      • **JVP
    • **JVP
  • **JVP 'sound of collision'
  • **JVP (?)

LVK[edit]

Onomatopoeic
  • **LVK1
    • **LVK (?)
      • **LVK
      • **LVK
  • **LVK2
    • **LVK
      • **LVK
Visage-verbalized
  • **LVK
    • **LVK (?)
      • **LVK
Sound-expressive
  • **LVK
    • **LVK
      • **LVK
        • **l(i,e)N (?)
    • **LVn
    • **lVy
    • **LVK
    • **l(i,e)N

LVJ[edit]

Onomatopoeic
  • **rVJ1
    • **LVJ
  • **rVJ2
  • **LVJ
    • **LVJ
      • **LVJ
    • **LVJ
    • **LVJ
      • **LVJ
      • **(l,r)VJ
      • **LVJ

LVL[edit]

Onomatopoeic
  • **lV(r,R)
    • *LVR
      • **(l,r)VL
      • **LV(r,R)
Sound-expressive
  • **lVL

LVP[edit]

Onomatopoeic
  • **l(e,u)b
    • **LVP
      • **lem
    • **LVP
      • **lem
  • **LV(b,p)1
    • **LV(b,p)
      • **LV(b,p)
      • **LVP
        • **lem
    • **LVP
    • **LVb
      • **LVP
  • **LVP2
  • **LVP
    • **lem
    • **Raw
    • **LV(b,p)

PVK[edit]

Onomatopoeic
  • **(b,p)VK1 'sound of collision'
    • **PVK
      • **PVJ
        • **pu(h,q)
  • **PVK
    • **pu(h,q)
  • **(b,p)VK2 'sound of breaking/cracking'
    • **PVK
    • **PVK
      • **PVK
        • **(b,p)VK
      • **PVK

PVJ[edit]

Onomatopoeic
  • **(b,p)VJ1
    • **PVJ
    • **(b,p)VJ
    • **(b,p)VJ
    • **(b,p)VJ
      • **buJ
    • **(b,p)VJ
    • **PVJ
  • **(b,p)VJ2
    • **(b,p)VJ
      • **buJ
      • **PVJ
      • **pus

PVL[edit]

Onomatopoeic
  • **(b,p)VL
    • **(b,p)VL
    • **(b,p)VL
    • **(b,p)VL
Visage-verbalized
  • **mul
  • **muR
Sound-expressive (?)
  • **(b,p)Vl
    • **(b,p)VL
      • **(b,p)V(l,r)

PVP[edit]

Onomatopoeic
  • **pup
    • **PVP (?)
      • **baw
        • **pap
  • **(b,B)u(b,B)
    • **PVP (?)
      • **baw
Visage-verbalized
  • **Paw
    • **PVP
      • **baw
Resyllabized (?)
  • **bab
    • **PVP (?)
      • **baw
  • **bVb

CVC roots[edit]

The following roots strongly support Cohen's Uniform-Root (UR) thesis.

  • **teg 'firm, bolt upright, sturdy' (also, **JVK)
  • **lem- 'soft, weak, moist, tired'
  • **keC 'adhesive, sticky'
  • **gem 'to grasp'
  • **kun 'throat'
    • **KVK 'to open up; opening...'
  • **til 'small protruding part'
  • **pap 'flattened'
  • **ger 'to shake, shiver, tremble'
  • **Din 'hear, ear'

Supposed CV roots[edit]

Cohen notes that supposed CV roots can be better analyzed as CVC roots, where the final -C can be -K, -J, -L, or -P.

  • **bu1- 'round,
    • > swollen, big-bellied, pregnant
    • > buttocks, posterior, rectum, stern
    • > hill, mountain, elevated ground
    • > lump, bump, hump'
    • Alternative candidates: **PVK, **buJ, **PVJ
  • **bu2- 'rotten, mold'
  • **bu3- 'white' (meanings of derived forms: to remove, to split; foam)
  • **lu- 'soft (matter)
    • > mud(dy); to wallow
    • > soft, tender, ripe
    • > grease, oil; to (be)smear
  • **le- 'moist; mud; tired, weary, slack; to give (way)'
  • **tu- 'heel, stump, base, prop, support'
  • **su- 'comb' (meanings of alternative forms: to insert; to pentrate; to crush)
  • **si- 'side, edge' (meanings of derived forms: percussive sound; to spread apart; to deviate)
  • **pu- 'master, lord'
  • **ba- 'to carry' (meanings of derived forms: to come together; to take away; to lay/lie across; to connect)
  • **li- 'to twist, turn, wind, whirling' (cf. Blust's *(k,q)ali- prefix)

Supposed VCV roots[edit]

Cohen notes that VCV candidates can be better analyzed as part of a merger of two CVC morphemes (CVCVC), or, rarely, as part of a reduced reduplicated (Cohen 1999:139).

  • **ela 'space between, interval, interspace'
  • **iri 'line, row, file; to trail, drag'
  • **awa 'wide open space' (meanings of derived forms: to cut; to open; to bite; to crack)
  • **abu 'dust, ashes; ash-gray'; **ebu 'dust' (meanings of derived forms: to fragment; to separate)
    • **abu 'fog, mist, smoke; turbid' (meanings of derived forms: to close over; to surround; to conceal)

Supposed -V-V- roots[edit]

Cohen notes that many -V-V- morpheme candidates cited by Nothofer can be better analyzed as composing solely of CVC morphemes (Cohen 1999:140).

  • **u-a {'to come out, open up, take off'}
    • > 'to vomit'
    • > 'to bubble up'
    • > 'foam'
    • > 'spit, spittle'
    • > 'to open, loosen, untie'
    • > 'to yawn, gasp'
    • > 'wide open, wide, hole, hollow'
    • > 'to come out'; 'outside'
    • > 'to peel'
    • > 'lever, dibbling stick'
  • **i-a 'to cry, whine; cry of fowl, twitter, chirp' (meanings of derived forms: reverberating sound, etc.)
  • **a-i 'hook; to grasp with a hook' (meanings of derived forms: to hold together; to cut into; to constrict; to fasten)
  • **i-a '(to) shine, sparkle, dazzle; light' (meanings of derived forms: to burn; to gnaw)
  • **u-u {'protruding'}
    • > 'headland, point'
    • > 'nose, beak, snout'
    • > 'mouth, labial orifice, lips'
    • > 'horn'
  • **a-a 'mouth' (meanings of derived forms: to open; to separate)
  • **u-u 'blunt, dull(-witted)' (meanings of derived forms: to wear down; to compact; to diminish)
  • **u-u 'to mumble' (meanings of derived forms: to burn; to light up)
  • **a-u 'to mix, knead'
  • **i-i 'tooth; to show teeth; jagged'

Supposed roots consisting solely of consonants[edit]

Cohen notes that these roots have very weak supporting evidence (Cohen 1999:229). His reconstructions in this section contain various glyphs that are not shown here.

  • **l-p-t 'to fold'
  • **k-(C)-p 'to blink, flash'
  • **l-c/s-C 'to slip, slide, glide'
  • **k-l/r-C-t 'wrinkled'

References[edit]

  • Wolff, John. 1999. "The monosyllabic roots of Proto-Austronesian. In Elizabeth Zeitoun and Paul Jen-kuei Li, eds. 1999. Selected papers from the Eighth International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics, 139-194. Taipei, Taiwan: Academia Sinica.
  • Cohen, E. M. Kempler. 1999. Fundaments of Austronesian roots and etymology. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University.