Appendix:Proto-Sino-Tibetan/d-ŋa

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This Proto-Sino-Tibetan entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Sino-Tibetan[edit]

Etymology[edit]

  • Proto-Sino-Tibetan: ?
    • Proto-Tibeto-Burman: *d-ŋa (Matisoff, STEDT)

Other roots for "tooth": *m-dzjwaj‎, *s-wa ~ p-wa.

Chinese may alternatively be regarded as a loan from an Austroasiatic language (Norman / Mei, 1976; Norman, 1988). Compare Vietnamese ngà (ivory), Mon လ္ၚာပ် ((tə)ŋèp, back tooth, molar) and loanword in Proto-Tai: *ŋaːᴬ (tusk, ivory) (Thai งา, Lao ງາ (ngā)). Pulleyblank (1983) believes Old Chinese was the donor.

Noun[edit]

  1. tooth

Descendants[edit]

  • Old Chinese: /*m-ɢˁ‹r›a/ (Baxter-Sagart), /*ŋraː/ (Zhengzhang Shangfang)
    • Middle Chinese: /ŋɣa/
      • Modern Mandarin
        • Beijing: ("tooth") (, /i̯a³⁵/)
  • Kamarupan
    • Kuki-Chin
      • Central Chin: Proto-Central-Chin /*hŋaw/ ("fang, canine tooth")