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This Proto-Sino-Tibetan entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



  • Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *rɣwjaɣ  (Coblin, 1986)
    • Proto-Tibeto-Burman: *k/r/s-wa, *rwa-s (Matisoff, STEDT); *r-wa (Benedict, 1972; Weidert, 1987)

The Chinese word family / / ("to fall, to die, to rain") is said to represent a rare ST parallel stem *(r)we (Schuessler, 2007). Compare also (/*ɢʷən/, "cloud").

Confer Proto-Tai *kraːᴮ (gust (of rain)) (Thai ห่า, Lao ຮ່າ ()).


  1. rain


  • Old Chinese: /*C.ɢʷaʔ/ (B-S), /*ɢʷaʔ/ (ZS) ("rain"); /*ɢʷaʔ-s/ (B-S), /*ɢʷas/ (ZS) ("to rain"); /*ɢʷa/ (B-S), /*ɢʷla/ (ZS) ("to pray for rain")
    • Middle Chinese: /ɦɨoX, ɦɨoH/, /ɦɨo/
      • Modern Mandarin
        • Beijing: (, /y²¹⁴/, "rain"), (, /y⁵¹/, "to rain"), (, /y³⁵/, "to pray for rain")
      • Cantonese
        • Guangzhou: /jyː¹³/
      • Wu
        • Shanghai: /ɦy²³/
    • Min
      • Min Nan
        • Taiwan: /hɔ³³/ (colloquial), /ʔu⁵¹/ (literary)
  • Lolo-Burmese-Naxi
    • Lolo-Burmese
      • Burmish
        • Written Burmese: ရွာ (rwa, (of rain) to fall)
      • Loloish
        • Northern Loloish
          • Yi (Liangshan): (hxa, rain) (literary) (> ꂷꉐ (ma hxa, rain))