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English citations of Hindu-Arabic numeral
1912 December 1912, “THE HINDU-ARABIC NUMERALS”, Popular Science, volume 81, Bonnier Corporation, ISSN 0161-7370, page 601:
- At present the Hindu-Arabic numerals hold nearly unlimited sway in the realm of number. In China, in Japan, in southeast Asia, and in parts of India, it is true, they are employed only by the upper classes and by foreign traders; but all over Europe, in Australia, and in North America, they are supreme; while in South America and in Africa they are used wherever civilized men make arithmetical computation.
1988, Oystein Ore, Number theory and its history, edition illustrated, reprint, Courier Dover Publications, ISBN 9780486656205, page 19:
- Our numerals as we now use them are commonly known as Hindu-Arabic numerals. Most historical evidence points to India as the country of their origin. To the Arabs who were instrumental in their transmission to Europe, they were known as the "Hindu numbers."
2004, Zelda King, The Story of Our Numbers: The History of Arabic Numerals, edition illustrated, Rosen Classroom, ISBN 9780823988709, page 22:
- Hindu-Arabic numerals made the printing process faster because the numbers usually required fewer digits than numbers written with Roman numerals. For example, it takes 2 digits to write the number of this page using Hindu-Arabic numerals: 22. Using Roman numerals, it would take 4 digits: XXII. By using fewer blocks of metal type, printers saved a little time on each page and a lot of time on a whole book. By around 1550 A.D., Hindu-Arabic numerals had taken the place of Roman numerals throughtout Europe.
2006, Chris Lowney, A vanished world: Muslims, Christians, and Jews in medieval Spain, edition illustrated, Oxford University Press US, ISBN 9780195311914, page 73-74:
- What we today call Hindu-Arabic numerals are not only a superior calculation tool but space-efficient. If three centuries from now our descendants are still pummeling each other up and down football fields, have no doubt that television producers will by then have tired of squeezing ungainly legends like "Super Bowl CCCXXXIV" onto TV screens. "Super Bowl 334" is vastly more economical, even if it suggests more pedestrian athletic combat than the epic struggle conveyed by Roman numbers.