Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
See also: Appendix:Variations of "pa"
-pä (in words with front vowel harmony; i.e. in words that include ä, ö, y or i or e alone or with ä, ö, y—cf. -pa)
- (enclitic) A particle to express that the speaker is surprised at or astonished by something:
- (enclitic) A particle appended to an imperative verb form in order to soften the order:
- (enclitic) A particle to express that the speaker is proud of something, also to boast or brag about something:
- (enclitic) When appended to a second-person imperative with the particle -s, gives the command or request a slightly more persuasive or inspiring tone:
- As seen above, this particle is used in subjective impressions or opinions or to soften commands and thus especially in spoken language. It can, depending on the context, have several meanings that, in English, can usually be expressed only by accentuating the words differently or by adding extra words. Also in Finnish, by changing the tone of voice, the sentences can, of course, be turned into ironic statements.
- Note also that this particle is always attached to the first or the second word of the clause.
- In everyday speech, this particle is used quite often even if there were no intention to give some special message.
- -kaan / -kään
- -han / -hän
- -ko / -kö
- -pa (the same particle in words with back vowel harmony)
Originally the strong grade of the active present participle suffix -vä.
-pä (front vowel harmony variant -pa)
- (rare) Forms adjectives or nouns of a very limited amount of verbs.
- Historically, this suffix is the older form of the active present participle suffix -va/-vä, so, therefore, käypä is originally the active present participle of käydä. However, some participles have preserved the old suffix -pa/-pä, but their meanings have completely changed so they cannot be used purely as participles. Therefore, the modern active present participles of käydä and syödä are —accordingly— käyvä and syövä.