Appendix:Finnish nominal inflection/risti

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KOTUS type 5 (risti) NSK type 4 (risti) and 7 (kalsium)

Two-syllable nominals ending with -i; consonant gradation possible.

Partitive ending -a/ and genitive plural ending -en. -i of stem changes to -e- before plural marker -i-, except in genitive plural, where it is dropped.

Foreign words and loan words ending in a consonant are often declined following this type: the nominative singular has no -i ending, but the rest of the declension is as for an -i nominal, including the illative singular -iin.

Basic declension without consonant gradation[edit]

ends with -i
back vowels
(contains a, o or u)
ends with -i
front vowels
(no a, o or u)
loan word
back vowels
(contains a, o or u)
loan word
front vowels
(no a, o or u)
in proper names
(with or without ending i)

Consonant gradation[edit]

Loan words generally do not undergo consonant gradation.

Summary[edit]

grade kk → k pp → p tt → t k → ∅ p → v t → d nk → ng lt → ll nt → nn rt → rr
nominative strong tukki nuppi niitti laki hupi koti vanki pelti tunti kaarti
genitive weak tukin nupin niitin lain huvin kodin vangin pellin tunnin kaarrin
partitive strong tukkia nuppia niittia lakia hupia kotia vankia pelt tuntia kaartia
elative weak tukista nupista niitista laista huvista kodista vangista pellistä tunnista kaarrista
illative strong tukkiin nuppiin niittiin lakiin hupiin kotiin vankiin peltiin tuntiin kaartiin

Complete declension example with consonant gradation (t → d)[edit]