Appendix:Latin gerunds

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to: navigation, search

In Latin, a gerund is a verbal noun. That is, it derives from a verb but functions as a noun.

Formation[edit]

Gerunds are formed by the addition of -andī, -andō, -andum to the stem first-conjugation verbs, or by the addition of endī, -endō, -endum to the stem of verb in other conjugations. Deponent verbs form their gerunds in the same manner as other verbs.

Some common irregular verbs, such as (go) and faciō (do, make) have gerunds in -undum, and this older form occasionally appears in the gerunds of other verbs of the third and fourth conjugations.

Inflection[edit]

Gerunds are always neuter in gender.

Case Gerund Example Example translated
Nominative ( audīre )1 Audīre gaudium est. Hearing is a joy.
Genitive audiendī gaudium audiendī the joy of hearing
Dative audiendō Studuit audiendō. He devoted (himself) to hearing.
Accusative audiendum, ( audīre )2 parātus ad audiendum ready for hearing
Ablative audiendō poetās audiendō by listening to poets
1 Gerunds have no nominative form; the present active infinitive form of the verb is used in these situations.
2 The accusative form of the gerund is used only following a preposition governing the accusative. Otherwise, the present active infinitive of the verb is used in place of the gerund.

Usage[edit]

The gerund (a noun) should not be confused with the similar gerundive (a participle) which has some similar endings, but which declines like and functions as an adjective.

The gerund is typically used without an object in Latin. When an object of the gerund is included, the gerundive is used in place of the gerund and given an ending that agrees with the object noun.