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The following documentation is located at Module:headword/documentation. [edit]
See also: subpages of this module.
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The documentation of this module no longer reflects its current state, and some information may be missing or incorrect. Please help by editing the documentation page, and adding information about undocumented features, while removing information that is no longer applicable.

This module is used to show headword lines, along with any annotations like genders, transliterations and inflections. It's used by the template {{head}}, via the submodule Module:headword/templates.


format_headword(heads, lang, sc)

Formats a headword, using the format appropriate for the given language object and script (see Module:script utilities#tag_text).

The heads parameter can either be a single string or a table of strings. If it's a table, then each string in the table is shown as a headword, separated by "or". This allows you to show multiple alternative headwords, such as when the same written form can be accented in different ways.

It has special behaviour in certain cases as well:

  • If an item in the heads parameter contains wikilinks, they are converted into language-section links for the given language (using Module:links#language_link, which is also used by {{l}}). For example, giving "[[give]] [[up]]" if the language provided is English will produce: [[give#English|give]] [[up#English|up]]. If string is prefixed with * or if any of the links are, then they are interpreted as reconstructed terms and it will create links to the appendix namespace as appropriate.
  • If heads is empty (nil or the empty table), it will default to mw.title.getCurrentTitle().subpageText (equivalent to {{SUBPAGENAME}} in templates).
    • If the page name contains spaces, it is split and each individual word is automatically wikilinked as above.
    • If the current page is in the appendix namespace, and the language's type (in Module:languages) is not appendix-constructed, then a * will be prepended to the headword to indicate that it is a reconstructed term.


format_transliteration(tr, lang)

If the transliteration is specified and non-empty, adds some stuff before and after it. For example, if the transliteration is 'foo' and the language is Hebrew, produces
 [[Wiktionary:Hebrew transliteration|•]] (<span lang="">foo</span>)
which looks like “ (foo)”.

(Note: the bullet/link is only added if the linked-to page actually exists.)


format_genders(genders, lang)

Format gender specifications using Module:gender and number. This function currently has fairly limited capabilities, but more may be added later.


format_inflections(inflections, lang, sc)

Format a list (table) of inflections, which are then concatenated together with commas and surrounded by parentheses. For example:

format_inflections({"first", "second", "third"}, "en", "Latn")


 (first, second, third)

displays as: (first, second, third)

If an element of the table is itself a table, then it is taken to consist of a list of labelled inflections:

  • The table must have a .label value which contains the label. It is displayed in italics and not linked.
  • The table may optionally have a .accel value. This value is used to support accelerated entry creation using WT:ACCEL. The "form-of" and "lang-(code)" classes are added automatically, so only the "(form)-form-of" class needs to be given, along with any other classes that may be needed.
  • The table may optionally have a .nolink value. If true, this will tell the function not to link to the terms, but only display them.
  • Numbered values in the table are the actual forms. They are formatted in bold text and converted to a link to the term. If a term already contains a link, it is converted into a section link using Module:links#language_link, just like in format_headword.
  • Forms are optional. If the table contains only the .label, then just the label is shown with no forms. If there is more than one form, they are shown with "or" between them.

For example:

    {label = "present", "krama"},
    {label = "past", "kramade"},
    {label = "past participle", "kramat"},
    "sv", "Latn")
    {label = "plural", accel = "plural-form-of", "voorbeelden"},
    "nl", "Latn")


 (''present'' <b lang=\"sv\">[[krama#Swedish|krama]]</b>, ''past'' <b lang=\"sv\">[[kramade#Swedish|kramade]]</b>, ''past participle'' <b lang=\"sv\">[[kramat#Swedish|kramat]]</b>)
 (''plural'' <span class=\"form-of lang-nl plural-form-of\"><b lang=\"nl\">[[voorbeelden#Dutch|voorbeelden]]</b></span>)

displays as:

(present krama, past kramade, past participle kramat)
(plural voorbeelden)

It is also possible, but optional, to supply a table instead of a term. This table can contain the keys .term (the actual term), .alt (alternative display form), .sc (script), .id (sense id) and .genders (list of genders). These are used the same way as for full_link in Module:links, and are passed directly to it.


    {label = "diminutive", {term = "Hündchen", genders = {"n"}}},
    "de", "Latn")


 (''diminutive'' <b lang=\"de\">[[Hündchen#German|Hündchen]]</b> <span class=\"gender\"><abbr title="neuter gender">n</abbr></span>)

displays as:

(diminutive Hündchen n)

Proposed/planned changes

  • Automatic transliteration for languages that support it. Note that the parameters of format_transliteration will need change for this to be implemented.
  • Checking for invalid genders, given a list genders that are valid for a particular language.

local export = {}
local lemmas = {
	["abbreviations"] = true,
	["acronyms"] = true,
	["adjectives"] = true,
	["adnominals"] = true,
	["adpositions"] = true,
	["adverbs"] = true,
	["affixes"] = true,
	["articles"] = true,
	["circumfixes"] = true,
	["circumpositions"] = true,
	["classifiers"] = true,
	["cmavo"] = true,
	["cmavo clusters"] = true,
	["cmene"] = true,
	["comparative adjectives"] = true,
	["comparative adverbs"] = true,
	["conjunctions"] = true,
	["contractions"] = true,
	["counters"] = true,
	["determiners"] = true,
	["diacritical marks"] = true,
	["fu'ivla"] = true,
	["gismu"] = true,
	["Han characters"] = true,
	["Han tu"] = true,
	["hanzi"] = true,
	["hanja"] = true,
	["idioms"] = true,
	["infixes"] = true,
	["interfixes"] = true,
	["initialisms"] = true,
	["interjections"] = true,
	["kanji"] = true,
	["letters"] = true,
	["ligatures"] = true,
	["lujvo"] = true,
	["morphemes"] = true,
	["non-constituents"] = true,
	["nouns"] = true,
	["numbers"] = true,
	["numeral symbols"] = true,
	["numerals"] = true,
	["particles"] = true,
	["phrases"] = true,
	["postpositions"] = true,
	["predicatives"] = true,
	["prefixes"] = true,
	["prepositions"] = true,
	["prepositional phrases"] = true,
	["preverbs"] = true,
	["pronominal adverbs"] = true,
	["pronouns"] = true,
	["proverbs"] = true,
	["proper nouns"] = true,
	["punctuation marks"] = true,
	["relatives"] = true,
	["roots"] = true,
	["suffixes"] = true,
	["superlative adjectives"] = true,
	["superlative adverbs"] = true,
	["syllables"] = true,
	["symbols"] = true,
	["verbs"] = true,
local nonlemmas = {
	["active participles"] = true,
	["adjectival participles"] = true,
	["adjective forms"] = true,
	["adjective comparative forms"] = true,
	["adjective superlative forms"] = true,
	["adverb forms"] = true,
	["adverb comparative forms"] = true,
	["adverb superlative forms"] = true,
	["adverbial participles"] = true,
	["agent participles"] = true,
	["article forms"] = true,
	["circumfix forms"] = true,
	["combined forms"] = true,
	["determiner comparative forms"] = true,
	["determiner forms"] = true,
	["determiner superlative forms"] = true,
	["diminutive nouns"] = true,
	["gerunds"] = true,
	["infinitives"] = true,
	["jyutping"] = true,
	["kanji readings"] = true,
	["misspellings"] = true,
	["negative participles"] = true,
	["nominal participles"] = true,
	["noun case forms"] = true,
	["noun forms"] = true,
	["noun plural forms"] = true,
	["numeral forms"] = true,
	["participles"] = true,
	["participle forms"] = true,
	["particle forms"] = true,
	["passive participles"] = true,
	["past active participles"] = true,
	["past participles"] = true,
	["past participle forms"] = true,
	["past passive participles"] = true,
	["perfect active participles"] = true,
	["perfect passive participles"] = true,
	["pinyin"] = true,
	["plurals"] = true,
	["postposition forms"] = true,
	["prefix forms"] = true,
	["preposition contractions"] = true,
	["preposition forms"] = true,
	["prepositional pronouns"] = true,
	["present active participles"] = true,
	["present participles"] = true,
	["present passive participles"] = true,
	["pronoun forms"] = true,
	["proper noun forms"] = true,
	["rafsi"] = true,
	["romanizations"] = true,
	["singulatives"] = true,
	["suffix forms"] = true,
	["verb forms"] = true,
	["verbal nouns"] = true,
-- Format a headword
local function format_headword(lang, sc, heads)
	local m_links = require("Module:links")
	local m_scriptutils = require("Module:script utilities")
	if type(heads) ~= "table" then
		heads = {heads}
	-- Create a default headword.
	local default_head = mw.title.getCurrentTitle().subpageText
	-- Determine if term is reconstructed
	local is_reconstructed = lang:getType() == "reconstructed" or (lang:getType() ~= "appendix-constructed" and mw.title.getCurrentTitle().nsText == "Appendix")
	-- Add links to multi-word page names when appropriate
	if lang:getCode() ~= "zh" then
		local WORDBREAKCHARS = "([%p%s]+)"
		local EXCLUDECHARS = "([^-־'.]+)" -- workaround for excluding characters from the above
		local contains_words = false; mw.ustring.gsub(default_head, WORDBREAKCHARS, function(b) contains_words = contains_words or mw.ustring.match(b, "^" .. EXCLUDECHARS .. "$"); end)
		if (not is_reconstructed) and contains_words then
			local function workaround_to_exclude_chars(s)
				return mw.ustring.gsub(s, EXCLUDECHARS, "]]%1[[")
			default_head = "[[" .. mw.ustring.gsub(default_head, WORDBREAKCHARS, workaround_to_exclude_chars) .. "]]"
			-- default_head = "[[" .. mw.ustring.gsub(default_head, WORDBREAKCHARS, "]]%1[[") .. "]]" -- use this when workaround is no longer needed
			default_head = mw.ustring.gsub(default_head, "%[%[%]%]", "") -- remove any empty links (which could have been created above at the beginning or end of the string)
	if is_reconstructed then
		default_head = "*" .. default_head
	-- If the list is empty, fill it with the default headword
	if #heads == 0 then
		heads = {default_head}
	-- Try to detect the script if it was not provided
	if not sc then
		sc = require("Module:scripts").findBestScript(heads[1], lang)
	for i, head in ipairs(heads) do
		-- If the head is the empty string "", then replace it with the default
		if head == "" then
			head = default_head
		-- Apply processing to the headword, for formatting links and such
		if head:find("[[", nil, true) then
			head = m_links.language_link(head, nil, lang)
		-- Add language and script wrapper
		head = m_scriptutils.tag_text(head, lang, sc, "head")
		heads[i] = head
	return table.concat(heads, " ''or'' ")
-- Format transliteration
local function format_transliteration(lang, sc, tr)
	if tr then
		local ret = " (<span class=\"tr\" lang=\"\">" .. tr .. "</span>)"
		if lang and .. " transliteration", "Wiktionary").exists then
			ret = " [[Wiktionary:" .. lang:getCanonicalName() .. " transliteration|•]]" .. ret
		return ret
		return ""
local function format_genders(lang, sc, genders)
	if genders and #genders > 0 then
		local gen = require("Module:gender and number")
		return "&nbsp;" .. gen.format_list(genders, lang)
		return ""
local function format_parts(lang, sc, parts)
	local m_links = require("Module:links")
	for key, part in ipairs(parts) do
		if type(part) ~= "table" then
			part = {term = part}
		local qualifiers = ""
		if part.qualifiers and #part.qualifiers > 0 then
			qualifiers = mw.getCurrentFrame():expandTemplate{title = "qualifier", args = part.qualifiers} .. " "
		-- Convert the term into a full link
		-- Don't show a transliteration here, the consensus seems to be not to
		-- show them in headword lines to avoid clutter.
		part = m_links.full_link(not parts.nolink and part.term or nil, part.alt or (parts.nolink and part.term or nil), lang, or sc, "bold",, {genders = part.genders, tr = "-"}, mw.title.getCurrentTitle().prefixedText)
		if parts.accel then
			part = "<span class=\"form-of lang-" .. lang:getCode() .. " " .. parts.accel .. "\">" .. part .. "</span>"
		part = qualifiers .. part
		parts[key] = part
	return "''" .. parts.label .. "''" .. (#parts > 0 and " " .. table.concat(parts, " ''or'' ") or "")
-- Format the inflections following the headword
local function format_inflections(lang, sc, inflections)
	if inflections and #inflections > 0 then
		-- Format each inflection individually
		for key, infl in ipairs(inflections) do
			-- If this inflection is a table, it contains parts
			-- consisting of alternating label-term pairs. Format them too.
			if type(infl) == "table" then
				inflections[key] = format_parts(lang, sc, infl)
		return " (" .. table.concat(inflections, ", ") .. ")"
		return ""
function export.full_headword(lang, sc, heads, tr, genders, inflections, categories, sort_key)
	local tracking_categories = {}
	heads = heads or {""}
	categories = categories or {}
	if #categories == 0 then
		if lang:getCode() ~= "und" then
			table.insert(tracking_categories, "head tracking/no pos")
			require("Module:debug").track("head tracking/no pos")
			require("Module:debug").track("head tracking/no pos/lang/" .. lang:getCode())
		for _, cat in ipairs(categories) do
			if mw.ustring.sub(cat, 1, mw.ustring.len(lang:getCanonicalName()) + 1) ~= lang:getCanonicalName() .. " " then
				table.insert(tracking_categories, "head tracking/no lang category")
				require("Module:debug").track("head tracking/no lang category")
				require("Module:debug").track("head tracking/no lang category/lang/" .. lang:getCode())
		if mw.ustring.sub(categories[1], 1, mw.ustring.len(lang:getCanonicalName()) + 1) == lang:getCanonicalName() .. " " then
			local pos = mw.ustring.sub(categories[1], mw.ustring.len(lang:getCanonicalName()) + 2)
			if lemmas[pos] or lemmas[pos:gsub("^reconstructed ", "")] then
				table.insert(categories, 1, lang:getCanonicalName() .. " lemmas")
			elseif nonlemmas[pos] or nonlemmas[pos:gsub("^reconstructed ", "")] or lemmas[pos:gsub("^mutated ", "")] or nonlemmas[pos:gsub("^mutated ", "")] then
				table.insert(categories, lang:getCanonicalName() .. " non-lemma forms")
				table.insert(tracking_categories, "head tracking/unrecognized pos")
				require("Module:debug").track("head tracking/unrecognized pos")
				require("Module:debug").track("head tracking/unrecognized pos/lang/" .. lang:getCode())
				require("Module:debug").track("head tracking/unrecognized pos/pos/" .. pos)
	-- Try to detect the script if it was not provided
	if not sc then
		sc = require("Module:scripts").findBestScript(heads[1] ~= "" and heads[1] or mw.title.getCurrentTitle().subpageText, lang)
	-- Try to generate a transliteration if necessary
	-- Generate it if the script is not Latn or similar, and if no transliteration was provided
	if tr == "-" then
		tr = nil
	elseif not tr and not ((sc:getCode():find("Latn", nil, true)) or sc:getCode() == "Latinx") then
		-- TODO: This should handle transliterations for each headword separately
		tr = lang:transliterate(heads[1] ~= "" and require("Module:links").remove_links(heads[1]) or mw.title.getCurrentTitle().subpageText, sc)
	-- Format and return all the gathered information
		format_headword(lang, sc, heads) ..
		format_transliteration(lang, sc, tr) ..
		format_genders(lang, sc, genders) ..
		format_inflections(lang, sc, inflections) ..
		require("Module:utilities").format_categories(categories, lang, sort_key) ..
		require("Module:utilities").format_categories(tracking_categories, lang, sort_key)
return export