This Wiktionary-specific transliteration system is based on the conventional system of transliteration for linguistics, with modifications, and exceptions to reflect Russian pronunciation instead of Cyrillic spelling.
|A a||B b||V v||G g, H h, X x, V v1||D d||E e, Je je, ɛ2||Jó jó, ó3||Ž ž||Z z||I i||J j||K k||L l||M m||N n||O o||P p||R r||S s||T t||U u||F f||X x||C c||Č č, Š š4||Š š||Šč šč||ʺ||Y y||ʹ||E e||Ju ju, u5||Ja ja||I i||F f||Ě ě||I i|
- The letter “г” is transliterated as h when it is pronounced /ɦ/, as x when it is pronounced /x/, and as v in genitive/accusative masculine/neuter endings (e.g., “-ого” = -ovo, and “-его” = -(j)evo, pronounced /ovo/ like “-ово” and /(j)evo/ like “-ево”, respectively). E.g., “бог (bog)” is box, “лёгкий (ljógkij)” is ljóxkij, “ого́ (ogó)” (interjection) is ohó or ogó, “кого́ (kogó)” is kovó and “сего́дня (segódnja)” is sevódnja.
- The letter “е” is transliterated as e after consonants, as je at the beginning of a word, or following a vowel or “ъ” or “ь”, and as ɛ in loanwords where the preceding consonant is not palatalised.
- The letter “ё” is transliterated as ó following the consonants “ж”, “ч”, “ш”, or “щ”. “ё” is transliterated as jó/ó by default as it is usually stressed, monosyllabic words, loanwords where indicating stress is not required or and rare multipart words, loanwords “ё” is NOT stressed must be transliterated as jo/o, e.g. monosyllabic words: лёд (ljod), Russian words prefixed with трёх- (trjox-), четырёх- (četyrjox-), rare loanwords with ustressed “ё”: Пёнтко́вский (Pjontkóvskij) (also Пентко́вский (Pentkóvskij).
- The letter “ч” is transliterated as š in the few words where it is pronounced /ʃ/ like “ш” (e.g., “что (čto)” is što, “коне́чно (konéčno)” is konéšno, etc.).
- The letter “ю” is transliterated as u in the combinations “жю” and “шю”. For example, “жюри́ (žurí)” = žurí, “брошю́ра (brošúra)” = brošúra where “ю” doesn't produce the usual pronunciation.
No more exceptions if the pronunciation is expected and can be learned from the basics of Russian phonology, specifically:
- The reduction of vowels and voicing/devoicing of consonants are not reflected in the transliteration.
- Verb endings “-тся” and “-ться” are transliterated as -tsja and -tʹsja, not -cca, -tsa, etc.
- Silent consonants in consonant clusters are transliterated, e.g., “че́стный (čéstnyj)” is čéstnyj, not čésnyj.
- Sibilants changing pronunciation are transliterated letter by letter as per the table, e.g., “сча́стье (sčástʹje)” is sčástʹje, not ščástʹje.
- Combinations “жи”, “ши”, and “ци” are transliterated as ži, ši and ci, not žy, šy and cy.
- Letter “ь” at the end of feminine nouns ending in “ж”, “ш”, “щ” and “ч” has no effect on the pronunciation and serves as a gender marker - рожь (rožʹ), мышь (myšʹ), вещь (veščʹ), печь (pečʹ). It's still transliterated as ʹ. The same applies to the 2nd person present tense verb forms ending in “-шь”, e.g. “де́лаешь (délaješʹ)” ("(you) do/(you are) doing").
Syllabic stress is indicated by an acute accent ́ over the stressed vowel:
- Roman: Á, á, É, é, ɛ́, Í, í, Ó, ó, Ú, ú and Ý, ý (já, jé, jó, jú, etc.).
- Cyrillic: “а́”, “е́”, “и́”, “о́”, “у́”, “ы́”, “э́”, “ю́”, “я́”.
E.g., “ры́ба (rýba)” (rýba, “fish”).
- The vowel “ё” is normally stressed in native Russian words, but occasionally it may be necessary to show the stress for this letter: “ё́” (not recommended for templates with automatic transliteration).