Wiktionary:About Limburgish

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Orthography[edit]

The general rule of the Limburgish orthography is write as it's pronounced.

Stress and tonality[edit]

Stress and tonality are not shown in the lemma. They are only shown in the pronounciation section. Stress is marked using [ˈ] in front of the stressed syllable and tonality is marked using [˦] for push tone, [˧] for neutral tone and [˨] for drag tone.

Vowels[edit]

A[edit]

A closed ⟨a⟩ stands for [ɑ] while an open ⟨a⟩ or ⟨aa⟩ stands for [aː]. An a with a circumflex (⟨â⟩) stands for [ɑː]. ⟨ae⟩ is written instead of ⟨æ⟩ to mark the [æː] sound. [ɔː] is written as ⟨ao⟩ and [œː] as ⟨äö⟩. ⟨ä⟩ stands for [ɑœ] and not for [æ]. ⟨aai⟩ and ⟨ai⟩ are written as ⟨aaj⟩ and ⟨aj⟩. Use ⟨au⟩ for [ɑu] when the sound in Dutch is not written as ⟨ou⟩ or ⟨oo⟩.

E[edit]

The letter ⟨è⟩ stands for [ɛ] and ⟨e⟩ for [æ]. An open ⟨e⟩ or ⟨ee⟩ stands for [e] or [eː]. ⟨èè⟩ stands for [ɛː] and [ɪː], ⟨eu⟩ for [ø] and [øː] and ⟨ei⟩ for [æɪ]. Do not use ⟨ea⟩ for the [æː] sound; use ⟨ae⟩ instead. ⟨ea⟩ stands for [ejaː], [ejɑ] or [ɪjə]. ⟨e⟩ can also stand for [ə].

I[edit]

A closed ⟨i⟩ means [ɪ], while an open ⟨i⟩ or ⟨ie⟩ stands for [i]. [iə] is written as ⟨ieë⟩, while [ijə] is written as ⟨ieje].

O[edit]

A closed ⟨o⟩ means [ɔ], while an open ⟨o⟩ or ⟨oo⟩ stands for [oː]. [o] is written as ⟨ó⟩. ⟨ö⟩ stands for [œ] or [ʌ]. ⟨oe⟩ stands for [u] or [uː], ⟨oea⟩ for [ua] and ⟨oa⟩ for [oːə]. ⟨ou⟩ is written when ⟨oo⟩ or ⟨ou⟩ is written in Dutch, it stands for [ɑu]. Use ⟨ów⟩ for [ow].

U[edit]

A closed ⟨u⟩ stands for [ʏ], an open ⟨u⟩ or ⟨uu⟩ for [y]. [yə] is written as ⟨uue⟩.

Y[edit]

This letter does not occur in Limburgish, except for a few not standardised loanwords. Do not use it, unless you know very well what you're doing.

Nasal[edit]

Nasalised vowels are not specially marked. They usually only occur in recent French loanwords or in rare pronounciations. When they occur in recent French loanwords, write the word down as it is written in French. When they occur in rare pronounciations, write the word down as it's pronounced without nasalised vowels.

Consonants[edit]

Write [b], [f], [k], [m] and [p] down as they are pronounced.

C[edit]

The [c] sound is written down as ⟨tj⟩ or ⟨dj⟩ depending on the inflection or conjugation of the word. The [s] sound is written as ⟨s⟩ and the [k] sound as ⟨k⟩. For ⟨ch⟩ see G.

D[edit]

⟨d⟩ stands for [d], ⟨dj⟩ for [ɖ] or [ɟ] and ⟨dzj⟩ for [dʒ].

G[edit]

⟨g⟩ stands for either [x] (word final) or [ʝ] (word initial/central) ⟨ch⟩ is pronounced as [x] or in some cases as [ɣ]. ⟨gk⟩ stands for [g].

H[edit]

⟨h⟩ is pronounced as [h] or [ɦ]. In some rare cases it's pronounced as [x].

J[edit]

⟨j⟩ stands for [j]. It is a demping sound, which means that you can't write for example *aje, *öje etc. It should be written as ⟨aaje⟩ for [aːjə] and ⟨ajje⟩ for [ɑjə]. [ɪj] is written as ⟨i-j⟩.

L[edit]

⟨l⟩ can stand for [l] and [ɫ]. ⟨lj⟩ for [ʎ].

N[edit]

⟨n⟩ stands for [n], ⟨ng⟩ for [ŋ] or [ŋg], ⟨nk⟩ for [ŋk] and ⟨nj⟩ for [ɲ].

Q[edit]

⟨q⟩ does rarely occur in some English or French loanwords, like ⟨quiz⟩. It can always be written down as ⟨k⟩ or ⟨kw⟩ (depending on the pronounciation)

R[edit]

⟨r⟩ stands for [r], [ʁ] or [ɹ].

S[edit]

⟨s⟩ stands for [s] or [ð] and ⟨sj⟩ for [ʃ] or [ʂ].

T[edit]

⟨t⟩ stands for [t] or [d], ⟨tsj⟩ for [tʃ] or [ð] and ⟨tj⟩ for [c] or [ʈ].

V[edit]

⟨v⟩ stands for [v] or [ʋ].

W[edit]

⟨w⟩ stands for [w]. ⟨wj⟩ for [ɰ].

X[edit]

⟨x⟩ is usually written as ⟨ks⟩. The sound [x] can be written as ⟨g⟩ or ⟨ch⟩.

Z[edit]

⟨z⟩ stands for [z] and ⟨zj⟩ for [ʒ] or [ʐ].

ʔ[edit]

[ʔ] is not written.

-n[edit]

⟨-n⟩ stands for [n]. It is used to avoid glottal stops. For example, weer make-n öch blie (we make you happy). It is used when the root is not ending on ⟨n⟩ (make) When the root does end on ⟨n⟩ (zeen), ⟨n⟩ is written; weer zeen blie, not weer zee-n blie (we are happy).

Loanwords[edit]

Loanwords that are considered to be "Limburgish" are written down as they are pronounced, like kwalletèèt (quality) or zjinnerieëre (to generate) Loanwords that are not consider to be "Limburgish" are written down as in the language they come from, delete (to delete) Some words can take both; for example, "quiz" and "kwès" are both correct. It is often difficult to determine whether a word is considered to be Limburgish or not; the best way is to look it up in a dictionary.

Formatting Limburgish entries[edit]

Wiktionary will contain all words in the Limburgish language. Since Limburgish is quite an inflected language, this will eventually include inflected forms aswell. The term lemma is used to refer to that basic or main form of the word — that which is usually listed as a headword in bi-lingual dictionaries. The entry for the lemma form (eg good) will give the main English meaning of the word and other grammatical information. Other forms, the non-lemma entries (eg gooje), will refer back to the lemma form.

The particular form that serves as the lemma is specific to each part of speech. For nouns, the lemma is usually the nominative singular; for adjectives, it is the gróndjvórm; and for verbs, it is the infinitive.

Each entry must contain at least two headers ==Limburgish== and a POS, where "POS" is shorthand for "Part of speech header". The "Limburgish" header identifies the language and must be at level 2 (L2). The POS subheader is usually at L3, but may appear at a deeper level in some circumstances. The entry below shows this portion of the text for a noun, further details will follow below, but first the pre-POS headers will be considered:

----(used to produce a horizontal line when not the first language.)
==Limburgish==
===Noun===     (the POS header)

When a single page contains both Limburgish and non-Limburgish entries (such as the page for integer), the languages are listed in alphabetial order, but with English coming before other languages. Each language is separated from the preceding language by a horiziontal line produced by typing four dashes, as demonstrated above.

Preferred sequence of sections[edit]

Each Limburgish entry should eventually include several sections, although not every entry will have all possible sections. Each section has a standard, invariant header and the sections occur in a standard sequence for all languages (See WT:ELE and this vote).

The following is the preferred sequence for standard sections, but please note that the Noun header is only one possible part of speech that may appear as the header. If the entry being created is for a Limburgish verb, then "Verb" should appear in place of the word "Noun" in the example below.

==Limburgish==
===Alternative spellings===
===Etymology===
===Pronunciation===
===Noun===       (the POS header)
====Usage notes====
====Inflection====
====Quotations====
====Synonyms====
====Antonyms====
====Derived terms====
====Related terms====
====Descendants====
====See also====
===References===

This sequence is standard across all languages, though some entries may modify this structure when there is more than one word in a language with the same spelling. In these cases, there may be more than one Etymology section and/or more than one Pronunciation section. (See Multiple etymology or pronunciation sections.)

The various section headers are considered here in three groups: (1) pre-POS headers, (2) POS headers and Inflection headers, and (3) other post-POS headers.