כש־

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Hebrew[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From כְּ־ (k'-, like, as) + שֶׁ־ (she-, that, which); compare כַּאֲשֶׁר (ka'ashér).

Conjunction[edit]

כְּשֶׁ־‏ (k'she-)

  1. When, as, at the time that.
    • a. 10 BCE, Hillel the Elder, quoted in Pirkei Avot 1:14:
      הוּא הָיָה אוֹמֵר אִם אֵין אֲנִי לִי. מִי לִי. וּכְשֶׁאֲנִי לְעַצְמִי. מָה אֲנִי. וְאִם לֹא עַכְשָׁיו. אֵימָתָי:‏
      hû hāyâ ʾômēr ʾim ʾên ʾăniîlî, mî lî, uḵəšeʾănî ləʿaṣmî, mâ ʾănî, wəʾim lô ʿaḵšaw, ʾêmāṯāy.
      He [Hillel] used to say, “If I am not for me, who is for me? And when I am for myself, what am I? And if not now, when?”
  2. With, with it being the case that.
    • 2011 September 22, Yaniv Kubovich (יניב קובוביץ),‎ Ha'Aretz, “הקשישה נמצאה מתה בחדרה, המטפל קפץ מהבניין (hak'shishá nimts'á méta b'khad'ráh, ham'tapél kafáts mehabinyán, Elderly Woman Found Dead in Room, Caretaker Jumps from Building):
      גופה של קשישה בת 80 נמצאה היום (חמישי) בחדרה בבית האבות "מגדלי הים התיכון" כשעליה סימני אלימות רבים.‏
      gufáh shél k'shishá bát 80 nimts'á hayóm (khamishí) b'khad'ráh bevéit ha'avót "migd'léi hayám hatikhón" k'she'aléiha simanéi alimút rabím.
      The body of an 80-year-old woman was found today (Thursday) in her room in the "Mediterranean Towers" nursing home with many marks of violence on it [literally, when on it [are] many marks of violence].

Usage notes[edit]

  • (when): Unlike English when, כְּשֶׁ־‏ is not used in framing questions, nor in introducing interrogative content clauses; the interrogative adverb and conjunction מָתַי (matái, when) is used for these purposes. For example, “When did it happen?” is מתי זה קרה?‏ (matái kará?), and “I don’t know when it happened” is אני לא יודע מתי זה קרה.‏ (aní lo yodéa matái ze kará)).
  • (when): Whereas in English, when and that are somewhat interchangeable in introducing complement clauses for temporal nouns — “the time when” and “the time that” being synonymous — in Hebrew כְּשֶׁ־‏ cannot be used this way; rather, שֶׁ־ (she-, that, which) is required. For example, “on the day when it happened” is ביום שזה קרה (bayóm shezé kará).

Synonyms[edit]