सायम्

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Sanskrit[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From साय (sāyá, evening); ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *seh₁-,[1] hence distantly related to Latin sērus.[2]

Pronunciation[edit]

Adverb[edit]

सायम् (sāyám)[3]

  1. in the evening, at eventide
    • c. 1700 BCE – 1200 BCE, Ṛgveda 10.146.3:
      उत गाव इवादन्त्युत वेश्मेव दृश्यते । उतो अरण्यानिः सायं शकटीरिव सर्जति ॥
      uta gāva ivādantyuta veśmeva dṛśyate . uto araṇyāniḥ sāyaṃ śakaṭīriva sarjati .
      And, there, cattle seem to graze, what seems a dwelling-place appears: Or else in the evening the goddess of the forest seems to free the carts.
    • c. 700 CE – 900 CE, Bhāgavata Purāṇa 4.12.48:
      प्रयतः कीर्तयेत्प्रातः समवाये द्विजन्मनाम् । सायं च पुण्यश्लोकस्य ध्रुवस्य चरितं महत् ॥
      prayataḥ kīrtayetprātaḥ samavāye dvijanmanām . sāyaṃ ca puṇyaślokasya dhruvasya caritaṃ mahat .
      A pious person should chant of the character of the well-famed Dhruva in the morning and in the evening, in a society of persons of the 3 upper castes.
    • c. 700 CE – 900 CE, Bhāgavata Purāṇa 7.12.2.1:
      सायं प्रातरुपासीत गुर्वग्‍न्यर्कसुरोत्तमान् ।
      sāyaṃ prātarupāsīta gurvag‍nyarkasurottamān .
      In the evening and in the morning, one should worship his guru, Agni, Surya, and Vishnu.

Descendants[edit]

  • Pali: sāyaṃ
  • Prakrit: सायं (sāyaṃ)
  • Hindi: सायं m or f (sāyam, evening, noun)

Noun[edit]

सायम् (sāyámn

  1. nominative/accusative singular of साय (sāyá, unloosing, unyoking)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ranko Matasović (2009), “*sīro-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic[1] (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 9), Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, page 337
  2. ^ Monier Williams (1899), “सायम्”, in A Sanskrit–English Dictionary, [], new edition, Oxford: At the Clarendon Press, OCLC 458052227, page 1207, column 2.
  3. ^ Apte, Vaman Shivram (1890), “सायम्”, in The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary, Poona: Prasad Prakashan, page 1673

Further reading[edit]

  • Turner, Ralph Lilley (1969–1985), “sāyám”, in A Comparative Dictionary of the Indo-Aryan Languages, London: Oxford University Press, page 770
  • Hellwig, Oliver (2010-2021), “sāyam”, in DCS - The Digital Corpus of Sanskrit, Berlin, Germany.