ㄴ다

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Korean[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From -- (-n-, present tense) + - (-da). First attested in the Seokbo sangjeol (釋譜詳節 / 석보상절), 1447, as ᄂᆞ다 (Yale: nota).

Inflectional suffix[edit]

ㄴ다 ‎(nda)

  1. a present tense plain style declarative suffix
    영화 간다.
    Yeonghwareul boreo ganda.
    I go to watch a movie.
    그는 "안다. 그래서?"라며 짜증 목소리되받다.
    Geuneun "Anda. Geuraeseo?"ramyeo jjajeung seokkin moksoriro doebadatda.
    "I know. So?", he retorted, with an irritated voice.
  2. a plain style monologic interrogative suffix; usually used with interrogative words
    어쩐다...?
    I doneul eojjeonda...?
    What should I do with this money...?

Usage notes[edit]

The suffix ㄴ다 ‎(nda) is directly attached to the stem of a verb ending in a vowel or with the consonant (l), which is dropped.

E.g. (gada, “to go”) → 아빠일하 간다. (appaga ilhareo ganda., “Dad goes to work.”)
(galda, “to replace”) → 아빠형광등간다. (appaga hyeonggwangdeungeul ganda., “Dad changes the fluorescent lamp.”)

If the stem ends in a consonant other than (l), 는다 (neunda) is used instead. This is directly attached to the stem, as well.

E.g. 잡다 (japda, “to catch”) → 포수는다. (posuga gongeul japneunda., “The catcher catches the ball.”)
See also[edit]