Appendix:Ancient Greek dialectal conjugation

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The conjugation of Ancient Greek verbs often differed between dialects. While Wiktionary gives conjugation in the Attic dialect by default, it is often useful to know how a word was inflected in dialects other than Attic.

The dialects[edit]

  • West Greek
    • Northwest Greek
      • Phocian
        • Delphian
      • Locrian
      • Elean
    • Doric
      • Laconian
      • Heraclean
      • Messenian (sparsely attested)
      • Megarian
      • Corinthian
        • Corcyraean
      • Argolic
      • Rhodian
      • Coan (and Calymnian)
      • Theran (and Melian)
      • Cretan
  • East Greek
    • Attic-Ionic
      • Attic
      • Ionic
        • Euboean
    • Arcado-Cyprian
      • Arcadian
      • Cyprian
    • Aeolic
      • Lesbian
      • Boeotian
      • Thessalian
  • Note that here "Lesbian" is used to refer to Lesbian Aeolic, the dialect used by the poets Sappho and Alcaeus. While this dialect is often referred to as simply "Aeolic", the term "Aeolic" can also be used to refer to Lesbian as well as the closely related dialects of Thessalian and Boeotian, and so the term "Lesbian" is used to avoid confusion.

Dialectal inflection tables provided by Wiktionary are often based on conjecture. For example, very few forms of the dual or vocative are attested anywhere, and so they are simply supplied in tables as in Attic in most cases. Additionally, quirks peculiar to a single city, or rare alternate spellings, are omitted in tables for the sake of brevity. "In all other dialects" below should be read as "in all other dialects in which the form is attested" in many cases. For the most part, spellings are given c. 400 BC, and normalized to the polytonic Ionic alphabet.

Personal endings[edit]

The terms "primary" and "secondary" below are used to refer to the two different series of endings that make up most of the conjugation of Greek verbs. The primary endings (thematic , -εις, -ει; athematic -μῐ, , -σῐ) are found primarily in the present indicative; the secondary endings (thematic -ον, -ες, ; athematic , , -) are found primarily in the imperfect and aorist indicative. The subjunctive is always thematic primary (but may be lengthened); the optative is always athematic, but may be primary or secondary depending on number, tense, and conjugation type.

The term "second aorist" is used below only to refer to aorists in -ον, never to athematic aorists.

Active[edit]

Primary thematic[edit]

  • First-person singular: in all dialects. -ου in Thessalian by regular sound change.
  • Second-person singular: -εις in most dialects in which the form is attested, but there is some evidence of -ες in Cyprian (from glosses in Hesychius) and in Doric (from Theocritus and grammarians).
    -ες may be borrowed from the secondary ending -ες.
  • Third-person singular: -ει in all dialects. -ῑ in Boeotian by regular sound change.
  • First-person plural: -ομες in West Greek, -ομεν in East Greek.
  • Second-person plural: -ετε in all dialects.
  • Third-person plural: -οντῐ in West Greek. -ονθῐ in Boeotian and Thessalian, -ουσῐ(ν) in Attic-Ionic, -ονσῐ in Arcadian, -οισῐ in Lesbian and Chian (Ionic). Cyprian probably has -ωσῐ, and not -ονσῐ as Arcadian, on the evidence of a form φρονέο̄ι with elision of intervocalic -σ-.
    The original form is thematic *-onti, athematic *-nti. In Boeotian and Thessalian this was changed to -νθῐ by analogy with middle verbal forms (-σθον, -σθᾱν, -μεθᾰ, -σθε, -σθαι; see also the middle). In the remaining East Greek dialects, τῐ was changed to σῐ, as in the third person singular. ν before σ became an offglide in Lesbian (and the nearby Ionic island of Chios), but in Attic-Ionic (and apparently Cyprian) ν was lost before σ with compensatory lengthening of the preceding vowel.

For vowel lengthening in the subjunctive, see below.

Primary athematic[edit]

  • First-person singular: -μι in all dialects.
  • Second-person singular: in East Greek. -σῐ is attested in ἐσσί (Syracuse, a Corinthian colony), which also appears in Homer; and in συντίθησῐ (Epidaurus in Argolis), and so might be regular in West Greek. Inscriptional examples of the second person are rare. -σθᾰ is often used in literary Lesbian and Doric, as in Homer.
    The original form is *-si, apparently replaced with the secondary ending in East Greek due to the shift of the third person singular from -τῐ to -σῐ (see below.) -σθᾰ is taken from the forms οἶσθᾰ, ἦσθᾰ; the original ending here is -θᾰ (Proto-Indo-European *woyd-th₂e, *e-h₁es-th₂e, originally a perfect ending, which was replaced in Greek by -ᾰς.)
  • Third-person singular: -τῐ in West Greek, and in Boeotian and Thessalian, -σῐ in all other East Greek dialects.
  • First-person plural: -μες in West Greek, -μεν in East Greek.
  • Second-person plural: -τε in all dialects.
  • Third-person plural primary athematic: -ντῐ in West Greek. -νθῐ in Boeotian and Thessalian, -νσῐ in Arcadian, -ισῐ (with diphthongization of the previous vowel) in Lesbian and Chian. -σῐ(ν) in Ionic, with lengthening of the previous vowel (, εει, οου); -σῐ with lengthening is also to be presumed for Cyprian (, εη, οω). -ᾱσῐ(ν) in Attic.
    For the explanation of these forms, see above under #Primary thematic.
    Attic -ᾱσῐ(ν) appears to be taken from -α- verbs such as ἵστᾱσῐ(ν).

Secondary thematic[edit]

  • First-person singular: -ον in all dialects.
  • Second-person singular: -ες in all dialects.
  • Third-person singular: in all dialects.
  • Third-person dual: -ετην in Attic-Ionic, -ετᾱν in all other dialects.
  • First-person plural: -ομες in West Greek, -ομεν in East Greek.
  • Second-person plural: -ετε in all dialects.
  • Third-person plural: -ον in all dialects.

Secondary athematic[edit]

  • First-person singular: in all dialects.
    The optative has primary -μι instead, except in one Arcadian inscription (IG V(2) 343 line 65) which has ἐξελαύνοια < *-oy-m̥.
  • Second-person singular: in all dialects.
  • Third-person singular: No ending.
  • Third-person dual: -την in Attic-Ionic, -τᾶν in all other dialects.
  • First-person plural: -μες in West Greek, -μεν in East Greek.
  • Second-person plural: -τε in all dialects.
  • Third-person plural: -σᾰν in Attic-Ionic. -ᾰν in Boeotian (ἀνέθιαν, παρεῖαν), Locrian (ἀνέθεαν), Arcadian (συνέθεαν), Cyprian (κατέθιjαν). -εν in Thessalian in the aorist. in most dialects.
    The original form is *-nt. Vowels were regularly shortened before this combination; thus the aorist passive has -εν (but η is sometimes restored by analogy, as Cretan and Epirotan διελέγην, Corcyraean ἐστεφανώθην, Delphian ἀπελύθην. ἦν "they were" is never shortened, as the augment represents a later process.) However, in Attic-Ionic, -σᾰν was taken from the first aorist (e.g. ἔλῦσᾰν, ἔλεξᾰν) and applied to athematic indicatives (ἐτίθησᾰν, ἔθεσᾰν, also the pluperfect ἐλελύκεσᾰν) as well as, later, the imperative (both active and middle; see below). Similarly in Boeotian et al., -ᾰν was borrowed from the first aorist.
    The provenance of Thessalian -εν is unknown, but may be inherited—cf. Homeric ἦεν as well as the optative -οιεν (see below). It may also be due to raising of α; cf. διέ for διά, -ει for -αι. It appears in ἐδούκαεμ (Attic ἔδωκαν), ὀνεθείκαεν beside ὀνέθεικαν (Attic ἀνέθηκαν), ἐτάξαιν with diphthongization (Attic ἔταξαν), and also once in a thematic form ἐνεφανίσσοεν (Attic ἐνεφάνιζον). ἐδώκαιν is also seen in a Delphian inscription, presumably due to Thessalian influence.
    The ending seen in the optative is not but -εν. In Attic-Ionic thematic presents, perfects, and first and second aorists this is not replaced by -σᾰν, but athematic presents and aorists show -ησᾰν beside -εν. -ησᾰν beside -εν is also seen in the optative of contract verbs (for replacement of the optative in contract verbs, see below) and in the aorist passive. In all cases -εν is more common, however.

Imperative thematic[edit]

  • Third-person plural: There are several distinct types.
    • -οντω: Regularly in Arcadian, and the Doric dialects except for Cretan and Theran. Later Doric inscriptions often have -οντων beside -οντω.
    • -ονθω: Regularly in Boeotian.
    • -οντων: Regularly in Attic-Ionic, Delphian, Elean, Cretan, and Theran. Later Delphian inscriptions often have -οντω beside -οντων.
    • -οντον: Regularly in Lesbian and Pamphylian. Also appears, probably through Pamphylian influence, in a Rhodian inscription from Phaselis (TAM II 1183), and in a Rhodian decree at Seleucia (Heberdey-Wilhelm, Reisen in Kilikien 105,185e).
    • -ετωσᾰν: Attic after 300 BC., thus in late inscriptions of various dialects. -οντωσᾰν occurs more rarely.

Imperative athematic[edit]

  • Third-person plural: There are several distinct types.
    • -των: ἔστων, as in Homer, is seen in Ionic only. A corresponding thematic form is not attested.
    • -ντω: Regularly in Arcadian, and the Doric dialects except for Cretan and Theran. Later Doric inscriptions often have -ντων beside -ντω.
    • -νθω: Regularly in Boeotian.
    • -ντων: Regularly in Attic-Ionic, Delphian, Elean, Cretan, and Theran. Later Delphian inscriptions often have -ντω beside -ντων.
    • -ντον: Regularly in Lesbian and Pamphylian. Also appears, probably through Pamphylian influence, in a Rhodian inscription from Phaselis (TAM II 1183).
    • -τωσᾰν: Attic after 300 BC., thus in late inscriptions of various dialects.

Middle[edit]

The thematic and athematic endings are identical except for the theme vowel, and so are not differentiated here.

Primary[edit]

  • First-person singular: -μοι is to be presumed for Arcadian (and Cyprian?); see below. -μη in Boeotian, -μει in Thessalian, both by regular sound change. -μαι in all other dialects.
  • Second-person singular: -(σ)οι is attested in Arcadian κεῖοι (with elision of intervocalic -σ-; Attic κεῖσαι). -(σ)η in Boeotian, -(σ)ει in Thessalian by regular sound change. -(σ)αι in all other dialects. In Attic thematic -εαι contracted to -ῃ, and after 400 BC this shortened to -ει.
  • Third-person singular: -τοι in Arcadian (and Cyprian?); -τη in Boeotian, -τει in Thessalian, both by regular sound change. -ται in all other dialects.
    -τοι in Arcadian and Cyprian is due to analogy of the secondary -το (before it was changed to -τυ.) κεῖοι and διαδικάσωντοι are also attested for the second-person singular and third-person plural, respectively.
  • First-person plural: -μεσθᾰ in Epic; -μεθᾰ in all dialects in which the form is attested.
  • Second-person plural: -σθε in all dialects in which the form is attested.
  • Third-person plural: -ντοι is attested in Arcadian διαδικάσωντοι. -νθη in Boeotian. -νθειν in Thessalian. -νται or -ᾰται in Ionic (see below). -νται in all other dialects.
    Boeotian and Thessalian -θ- is due to analogy with other middle verbal forms (-σθον, -σθᾱν, -μεθᾰ, -σθε, -σθαι; see also the active). Thessalian may be taken from the active secondary ; see also the imperative.

Secondary[edit]

  • First-person singular: -μην in Attic-Ionic, -μᾱν in all other dialects.
  • Second-person singular secondary and imperative: -(σ)υ in Arcado-Cyprian by regular sound change. -(σ)ο in all other dialects. For contraction of εο, ᾰο, οο, see Appendix:Ancient Greek contraction.
  • Third-person singular: -τυ in Arcado-Cyprian by regular sound change. -το in all other dialects.
  • Third-person dual: -σθην in Attic-Ionic, -σθᾶν in all other dialects.
  • First-person plural: -μεσθᾰ in Epic; -μεθᾰ in all dialects in which the form is attested.
  • Second-person plural: -σθε in all dialects in which the form is attested.
  • Third-person plural: -ντυ in Arcado-Cyprian by regular sound change. -ντο or -ᾰτο in Ionic (see below). -ντο in all other dialects.
    In the perfect and pluperfect, the athematic -νται, -ντο often directly followed a consonant, and thus became -ᾰται, -ᾰτο (e.g. γεγράφᾰται, ἐγεγράφᾰτο.) This was sometimes extended to vowel stems in Boeotian (ἐστροφεύαθη, μεμισθώαθη) and in Ionic (and so in Homer) was regularly extended not only to perfect vowel stems but also to the optative (-οιᾰτο etc.) and to athematic presents and imperfects (τιθέᾰται). By the analogy of τιθέᾰται to τίθημῐ we then have δυνέᾰται, κιρνέᾰται to δύνημῐ, κίρνημῐ (otherwise α-stems.)

Imperative[edit]

  • Third-person plural: There are several distinct types. The thematic form is listed followed by the athematic form.
    • -εσθω, -σθω: i.e. the same form as the third singular. Rarely attested. Seen in Corcyraean κρινέσθω, ἐπιδανειζέσθω, Calymnian ἐπισαμαινέσθω, Coan αἱρείσθω, Thasian θέσθω.
    • -ονσθω, -νσθω: Seen in Argolic ποιγραψάνσθο̄.
    • -ο̄σθω, -σθω: From the above, with loss of ν and lengthening. Seen in Corcyraean ἐκλογιζούσθω. Therefore Epidaurian φερο̄́σθο̄, Laconian ἀνελο̄́σθο̄, Heraclean ἐπελᾱ́σθο̄ are presumably to be read with a long vowel.
    • -ο̄σθων, -σθων: From *-(ο)νσθων, with loss of ν and lengthening. Early Attic ἐπιμελο̄́σθο̄ν etc., Elean τιμο̄́στο̄ν (with στ from σθ by regular sound change.)
    • -εσθον, -σθον: Regularly in Lesbian and Pamphylian. Also appears, probably through Pamphylian influence, in a Rhodian inscription from Phaselis (TAM II 1183).
    • -εσθωσᾰν, -σθωσᾰν: Attic after 300 BC., thus in late inscriptions of various dialects.
    • -εσθων, -σθων: the usual form in most dialects.

Moods[edit]

Subjunctive[edit]

The subjunctive always has primary thematic endings, however, the length of the vowel varies.

  • In thematic presents, all futures, and second (thematic) aorists, the vowel is lengthened, so , -ῃς, -ῃ, -ητον, etc. Some dialects, however, have the third-person singular ending , not -ῃ. This is seen universally in Arcado-Cyprian, from c. 325 BC onward in Lesbian, and in a scattering of forms from other dialects: Elean ἐκπέμπᾱ (Minon, Les inscriptiones éléenes dialectales 30, with from η by sound change), Epidaurian πέτη (IG IV²,1 128.8).
  • In athematic presents and aorists, we find several distinct types:
    • The primary thematic endings are added directly to the lengthened vowel stem, with no theme vowel. With very few exceptions (Cretan πέπᾱται, Theran πέπρᾱται, Calymnian ἐ[γ]ρύαι), this is found only where the corresponding indicative form has a short vowel, and is found especially often in the middle. Thus Cretan δύνᾱμαι, νύνᾱται, νύνᾱντι, Arcadian ἐπισυνίστᾱται, δέᾱτοι, Messenian τίθηντι, ἦνται (for ὦσι), Delphian ἦται (for ), γράφηντι.
    • The long vowel of the stem is followed by the short thematic vowel. Thus Epic θήομεν (θείομεν), δώομεν. Boeotian καθιστᾶ́ει, ἀποδώει, κουρωθείει, ἐπιμελειθείει, κατασκευασθείει, ἐνενιχθείει could belong to this or to the following type.
    • The long vowel of the stem is followed by the long thematic vowel. This generally replaces the previous type. Thus Epic θήῃς, δώῃ, δαμήῃς, μιγήῃς, Delphian δώη, ἀντιπριᾱ́ηται, Heraclean φᾶντι < *φᾱ́ωντι, Thessalian δυνᾱ́ε̄ται, Arcadian κακριθε̄́ε̄.
    • The short vowel of the stem is followed by the long thematic vowel. This derives from the previous type, which it replaced in the majority of dialects. Thus Ionic θέωμεν, λυθέωμεν, Attic θῶμεν, λυθῶμεν (with contraction), Cretan ἐνθίωμεν, πειθθίωντι, Heraclean ἐγϝηληθίωντι (with ι from ε before a vowel), Rhodian ἐργασθέωντι, etc.
  • In first (sigmatic) aorists, we find several distinct types:
    • The original form had the short thematic vowel. This is found in Epic, and in East Ionic, Lesbian, Cretan, and occasionally elsewhere.
    • This was replaced by the long thematic vowel in most dialects.
    • We also occasionally find a subjunctive in -σᾱ, extended from the first type of athematic subjunctive above. Thus Cretan παρθύσᾱται, Arcadian βωλεύσᾱνται, Elean φυγαδεύᾱντι, ποιήᾱται (with loss of intervocalic σ).

Optative[edit]

The optative always has secondary athematic endings, with the solitary exception of the first person singular, which is sometimes primary -μι, and the third person plural, which is always -εν. However, some variations are seen between the optatives of thematic and athematic stems, and first aorists:

  • In thematic stems (i.e. thematic presents, all futures, second [thematic] aorists), the stem vowel is always -οι-, but the first person singular ending is not secondary but primary -μι, thus -οιμι, -οις, -οι, -οιτον, etc.
    • A singular Arcadian inscription (IG V(2) 343 line 65) has ἐξελαύνοια < *-oy-m̥.
  • In athematic stems (i.e. athematic presents and aorists), the stem vowel is the a diphthong formed by adding the offglide to the stem vowel. The active singular endings have an additional , and the first person singular is secondary , thus -ιην, -ιης, -ιη, -ιτον, etc.
    • The extension of these endings to otherwise thematic contract verbs, as in Attic, is occasionally found elsewhere. Thus Ionic ἀνωθεοίη beside ποιοῖ, Elean συλαίε̄, δαμοσιοίᾱ (with for η by sound change) beside δοκέοι, ποιέοι, Argolic οἰκείη.
  • In the first (sigmatic) aorist, the stem vowel is -αι-, and the first person singular ending is primary -μι, so -αιμι, -αις, -αι, -αιτον, etc. However, in Attic-Ionic, the endings -ειας, -ειε, and -ειαν are more common than -αις, -αι, and -αιεν in the second-person singular, third-person singular, and third-person plural, respectively. This is seen occasionally elsewhere, in Elean κατιαραύσειε, later ἀδεαλτώhαιε. The name "Aeolic" is sometimes given to this type, but it is not found in the Aeolic dialects.
  • In contract verbs, which are otherwise thematic, the athematic endings -οίην, -οίης, -οίη, more rarely -οίητον, -οιήτην, -οίημεν, -οίητε, -οίησᾰν, are used in Attic, and are occasionally found elsewhere, as Ionic ἀνωθεοίη beside ποιοῖ (McCabe, Teos inscriptions 261), Elean συλαίε̄, δαμοσιοίᾱ beside δοκέοι, ποιέοι (Minon, Inscrs. éléennes dialectales 12, 30, Argolic οἰκείη.

Infinitive[edit]

  • Thematic active: -ην in Lesbian, Elean, and Laconian. -ειν in Attic-Ionic, Thessalian, Locrian, Corinthian, and Rhodian. -εν in Arcadian (but -ην at Lycosura and Orchomenus), Cyprian (if not -ε̄ν?), Delphian, and most Doric dialects. -μεν in Boeotian and Thessalian; also once in an early inscription Cretan (προϝειπέμεν, IC I xviii 1).
    • -ην and -ειν are contracted from *-ε-εν; see Appendix:Ancient Greek contraction.
    • -έν is found in some dialects even in ε-contract verbs. Thus Theran διοικέν, Coan δειπνέν, Calymnian μαρτυρέν, Argolic πωλέν, Delphian ψαφοφορέν, ἐνοικέν (but usually -εῖν). Cretan κοσμεν etc. may be read as -έν or -ῆν.
    • Boeotian and Thessalian -μεν is extended from the athematic infinitive.
  • Athematic active: -ναι in Attic-Ionic and Arcado-Cyprian. -μεναι in Epic and Lesbian (but see below.) -μεν in Thessalian, Boeotian, and almost all West Greek dialects. -μην in Cretan (but also -μεν; both types are found at Gortyna.) -μειν in Rhodian and Rhodian colonies.
    • In Lesbian, the aorist passive infinitive, which is regularly athematic in other dialects, has the thematic infinitive, so ἐπιμελήθην, ὀντέθην. Additionally, the present infinitive of athematic stems is , not -μεναι; this follows the long stem vowel, so δίδων, κέρνᾱν, ὄμνῡν, etc. This ending is seen once in the aorist as well (πρόστᾱν)
  • First aorist active: -ειν in Thessalian; in Boeotian through regular sound change; αι in all other dialects.
  • Passive: -στειν in Thessalian; -στη or -σθη in Boeotian through regular sound change; -σθαι in all other dialects.
    • -ει is derived from -αι through regular sound change, and -ειν is added after the analogy of other infinitives.

Participle[edit]

The form participle is for the most part invariate across dialects (for variations in declension, see Appendix: Ancient Greek dialectal declension).

  • The middle participle of ε-contract verbs appears in -ειμενος or -ημενος instead of usual -εομενος in the Northwest Greek dialects and Boeotian, e.g. Locrian ἐνκαλείμενος, Delphian καλείμενος, ποιείμενος, etc., Boeotian δείμενος, Elean κα(δ)δαλε̄́μενος.
  • The perfect active participle in -ώς, -υῖα, -ός (from -ϝώς, -υῖα, -ϝός) is replaced with the thematic participle -ων, -οισᾰ, -ον in the Aeolic dialects (cf also Epic κεκλήγοντες). Later Delphian, apparently unrelatedly, has an occasional feminine -ουσα. The feminine -εῖα is found for -υῖα in late Attic and elsewhere (Heraclean ἐρρηγεῖα, Theran ἐστακεῖα).

Tenses[edit]

Present[edit]

Some variation in the pressent stem can be seen across the dialects. In particular:

  • Presents in -εύω are formed with -είω in Elean.
  • Presents in -άω sometimes show forms from -έω in various dialects, but, with few exceptions, only where the stem is followed by an ο-vowel. Thus Epic μενοίνεον, Delphian συλέοι, συλέοντες, ἐπιτιμέοντες, θωεόντων, Aetolian νικεόντοις, Rhodian τιμοῦντες, τιμεῖν, Elean ἐνε̄βέοι, Cretan ε̄̓βίο̄ν, ἐπαριόμενον, μοικίο̄ν.
  • Presents in -όω are often formed instead with -ίζω, especially in West Greek. Thus Boeotian, Phocian δουλίζω for δουλόω; Delphian, Thessalian ἀπελευθερίζω for ἀπελευθερόω; Delphian, Rhodian, Cretan, Messenian ὁρκίζω for ὁρκόω (also sometimes seen in Attic-Ionic); Choral Doric στεφανίζω for στεφανόω (Ar. Eq. 1225).
  • Presents in -όω are sometimes formed instead with -άω. Lesbian ἀξιάω for ἀξιόω; Thessalian, Doric κοινάω for κοινόω; Phocian σκᾱνε̃ν (and Attic σκηνᾶν) for σκηνοῦν; Heraclean ἀράω for ἀρόω.
  • Various presents in -όω. Delphian, Megarian, Argolic, Cretan, Theran, Sicilian σκευόω for σκεύαζω; Boeotian πιθόω for πείθω; Heraclean πριόω for πρίω; Lesbian, Ionic δοκιμόω for δοκιμάζω.
  • Contracted presents (-άω, -έω, -όω) are inflected as athematic verbs (-ᾱμι, -ημι, -ωμι) in Lesbian, Thessalian, and Arcado-Cyprian. The stem ends in a long vowel, thus κάλημαι, κάλησαι, κάληται, κάλησθον, infinitive κάλησθαι, etc. This is regularly shortened before ντ, as κάλεντον, ἐφάνγρενθειν (Thessalian, with νθ from ντ), στοίχεις (from στοιχεντ-ς), but the long vowel is sometimes analogically restored, as Lesbian κατοικήντων, προνόηνται, διασάφηνται.
  • For the athematic optative endings, see above.

Future and Aorist[edit]

  • The so-called "Doric future" in -σέω occurs is well-attested in most of the Doric dialects and in Delphian (no futures are attested in Locrian and Elean). Heraclean has ἐσσῆται, ἐργαξῆται, but in the third plural ἀπάξοντι, ἔσσονται, which appear to be normal -σω forms. In all other Doric dialects, however, -σω forms are late and clearly due to Koinê influence.
  • Verbs in -ζω regularly form their future and aorist in -ξω in West Greek, Thessalian and (in part) Boeotian and Arcadian. In Argolic the -ξω formation is avoided when a velar precedes, thus ἐδίκασσαν, ἐργάσσαντο. Boeotian has both -ξω and -ττω (regular for -σω) from different localities.
  • -σ- is doubled after a short vowel in vowel-stem verbs in Lesbian, Boeotian, and sometimes in Epic, as Epic ἐκάλεσσα, Lesbian ὀμόσσαντες, Boeotian σουνκαλέσσαντες.
  • The first aorist ending for -ον, as in εἶπα, ἤνεγκα, is seen in Arcadian ἀπυδόας, and in late times in many other verbs, as ἦλθα, γενάμενος.
  • The future passive is formed with active endings in Rhodian ἐπιμεληθησεῦντι, ἀποσταλησεῖ, Theran συναχθησοῦντι, Cretan ἀναγραφησ[εῖ], φανησεῖν, and (Corinthian) φανησεῖν, δειχθησοῦντι in Archimedes. While the examples are as yet confined to the Doric islands, it is possible that this was a general Doric or West Greek characteristic.

Perfect[edit]

  • In the first perfect, forms without κ are seen outside of the indicative singular in Epic βεβάᾱσι, κεκμηώς, etc., Boeotian ἀποδεδόανθι, καταβεβάων, δεδώωση (for δεδωκυῖαι), ϝεϝυκονομειόντων (for ᾠκονομηκότων), πεπιτευόντεσσι, πεποιόντεισσι, Arcadian [ϝο̄]φλε̄́ασι (but participle ϝο̄φλε̄κόσι.)
  • The κ-perfect is occasionally aspirated, as in Argolic δέδωχ[ε].
  • Heraclean has third-person plural indicative γεγράψαται and μεμισθώσωνται.
  • The grade of the root may vary, as Cretan ἀμπεληλεύθεν and Epic εἰλήλουθα for Attic (ἀμφ)εληλυθέναι, Heraclean ἐρρηγεῖα for Attic ἐρρωγυῖα, Doric ἔωκα for Attic εἶκα, Heraclean ἀνhεῶσθαι, Arcadian ἀφεώσθω for Attic -εἷμαι (but also -ἕωμαι).
  • Thematic forms in the indicative (as regularly in the subjunctive, optative, and imperative) are often found in the Sicilian Doric writers, as δεδοίκω, πεπόνθεις, πεφύκει (Theocritus), γεγάθει (Epicharmus), τετμάκει (Archimedes), as well as in some inscriptions at Cnidus and Carpathus, as τετιμάκει, γεγόνει, ἑστάκει, and occasionally elsewhere, as Phocian εἰλάφει. For thematic infinitive and participle, see above.

References[edit]