Appendix:Cognate sets for Dravidian languages

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Numerals[edit]

The numerals from 1 to 10 in various Dravidian languages.

Number Tamil Gondi Konda Kui Parji Gadaba Naiki Kodava Kota Kannada Malayalam Tulu Telugu Kolami Kurukh Brahui Toda Proto-Dravidian
1 onru ōkō / oror or_ ro okti / ok okut okko / okkod orï or ondu onnu onji okai / okata okkod oa asi /wɨd̠/ *oru(1)
2 irau ranḍ / ranḍu / renḍ riˀ /ri / runḍi irḍu (things) / irul (men) / iral (women) ir indiŋg (things) / iddar (men) / iraḷ (women) / ernḍi (things) / iroṭer (men) / ira (women) daṇḍï (things) / i·r a·ṇḍï (years) / i·raṇḍï (2 by 2) eyḏ / i·r a·ṛ (years) / ir pa·ṇy (measures) erau rau ra renu irā indiŋ irā /iːr, ɨ-/ *iru(2)
3 nru mūnḍ mūnṟi munji mū̃du(k) mūṇu / mūnḍ mūndiŋ muːndï muːnḏ ru mūnnu mūji (300 is munnūdu) u / mūnṟu (inscr.) mūndiŋ mūnd musi /muː, muːd̠/ *muC
4 nālu, nālku, nānku nālku nālu nāl nālugu nāliŋ kh čār (II) /noːng/ *nān
5 aintu aidu añcu aynï ayidu ayd 3 pancē (II) panč (II) /yz/ *cayN
6 āru āru āru āji āru ār 3 soyyē (II) šaš (II) /oːr̪/ *caru
7 ēu ēlu ēu yēl ēu ē 3 sattē (II) haft (II) /ɵw, ɵː/ *eu
8 eu eu eu edma enimidi enumadī 3 ahē (II) hašt (II) /ɵʈ/ *eu
9 onpatu ombattu onpatu ormba tommidi tomdī 3 naiyē (II) nōh (II) /wɨnboθ/ *to
10 pattu hattu pattu patt padi padī 3 dassē (II) dah (II) /pot̪, poθ, foθ/ *pat(tu)
  1. This is the same as the word for another form of the number one in Tamil and Malayalam. This is used as an indefinite article meaning "a" and also when the number is an adjective followed by a noun (as in "one person") as opposed to when it is a noun (as in "How many are there?" "One").
  2. This is still found in compound words, and has taken on a meaning of "double" in Tamil and Malayalam. For example, irupatu (20, literally meaning "double-ten"), iravai (20 in Telugu), or "irai" ("double") or Iruvar (meaning two people).
  • Words indicated (II) are borrowings from[Indo-Iranian languages.