Appendix:Middle Welsh pronunciation

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Middle Welsh pronunciations in Wiktionary entries.

Consonants
IPA Examples English equivalent
b bach, cwbyl, mab be
d dyd, cadw, tat do
ð dyd, deudec the
f ffenestr, kyffredin, corff, phenn find
ɡ glan, kegin, kic get
h heul, gwahan have
j ieith you
k kig, racw can
l y lyuyr, Alban, boly like
ɬ llyuyr, kyllell No English equivalent; similar to the voiceless l in please but with considerably more friction
m mab, kymeint, dim me
uym penn, amharu wormhole
n nerth, anadlu, gwynn no
uyn tad, brenhin unhappy
ŋ uy gwlat, rwng, dangos[1] thing, finger
ŋ̊ yg Kernyw, aghywir Shanghai
p penn, copa please
r y restr, garw, dwuyr right but trilled
restr, dyarhebu Voiceless r as in pretty but trilled
s sarff see
t tu, at time
θ that, athraw, peth think
v uaint, y uab, aual, arf very
w wedy, y wreic, kywir was
χ chwaer, y chath, bwlch No common English equivalent; Scots loch or Yinglish chutzpah
Monophthongs
IPA Examples English equivalents
a sant, mab pant, fan
e penn, peth between bet and bait (but monophthongal, as in Welsh English)
ə ysgriuennydyon about
i dim, hir be
ɨ gwynn, ty
o bronn, bro between bought and boat (but monophthongal, as in Welsh English)
u cwmm, cwch you, fool
ʉ punt, llun
Diphthongs
IPA Examples English equivalents
aɨ̯ cael
au̯ llaw loud
ei̯ seith paid
eu̯ llew
eʉ̯ gwneut
əu̯ bywyt
iu̯ lliw
ɨu̯ benyw
oɨ̯ coet
uɨ̯ mwy
Other symbols used in transcription of Welsh pronunciation
IPA Explanation
ː Vowel length, for example mab /maːb/
ˈ Primary stress (placed before the stressed syllable), for example ysgriuennydyon /əskrivenˈnəðjon/
. Syllable break, for example aut /ˈa.ʉd/
  1. ^ dangos has a voiced velar plosive, ɡ invalid IPA characters ([]), after the velar nasal, ŋ invalid IPA characters ([]), as in English finger