Appendix:Norwegian pronunciation

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
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This is a guide to pronunciation of Norwegian. There is no centrally mandated pronunciation of Norwegian. In Wiktionary, the pronunciation given for Norwegian Bokmål generally reflects the pronunciation of Central Eastern Norway, in and around Oslo. The pronunciation given for Norwegian Nynorsk generally reflects the pronunciation in the parts of Norway where Nynorsk is mostly used. Other pronunciations may also be possible.

Consonants[edit]

Plosives[edit]

Phoneme Transcription, example and translation
p par, [pʰɑːr], "pair; couple"
b bok, [buːk], "book"
t tam, [tʰɑmː], "tame"
d dam, [dɑmː], "pond"
k katt, [kʰɑtː], "cat"
ɡ god, [ɡuː], "good"

/p, t, k/ are all aspirated and pronounced almost identical to the equivalent English sounds. /b, d, ɡ/ are distinctly voiced, moreso than the English equivalents of most dialects.

Fricatives[edit]

Phoneme Transcription, example and translation
f fot, [fuːt], "foot"
ʋ våt, [ʋoːt], "wet"
s sol, [suːl], "sun"
ʂ sju, [ʂʉː], "seven"
ç kjapp, [çɑpː], "fast"
j jord, [juːr], "soil"
h han, [hɑnː], "he"

/r/[edit]

Phoneme Transcription, example and translation
r rød, [ɾøː], [ʁøː], "red"

The pronunciation of /r/ varies in the various dialects. In eastern dialects the pronunciation is more forward, [ɾ] or [r] while the pronunciation in western dialects is further back, [ʁ] [χ].

In some dialects /s, t, d, n, l/ merge with /r/ into retroflex assimilations [ʂ, ɖ, ʈ, ɳ, ɭ].

Laterals[edit]

Phoneme Transcription, example and translation
l land, [lɑnː], "country"

Nasals[edit]

Phoneme Transcription, example and translation
m mann, [mɑnː], "man"
n nese, [ˈneːsə], "nose"
ŋ lang, [lɑŋː], "long"

Vowels[edit]

Long vowels
Phoneme Transcription, example and translation
ti, [tʰiː], "ten"
ny, [nyː], "new"
ʉː hus, [hʉːs], "house"
ser, [seːr], "see"
æː være, [ˈʋæːrə], "to be"
ɑː har, [hɑːr], "have"
øː brød, [brøː], "bread"
god, [ɡuː], "good"
, [noː], "now"
Short vowels
Phoneme Transcription, example and translation
ɪ litt, [lɪtː], "a little, a bit"
ʏ hytte, [ˈhʏtːə], "cabin"
ʉ munn, [ˈmʉnː], "mouth"
ɛ redd, [rɛdː], "afraid, scared"
æ vært, [ʋæʈː], "been (past ptcpl.)"
ɑ mann, [mɑnː], "man"
œ brønn, [brœnː], "well"
ʊ tok, [tʊkː], "took (simple past)"
ɔ toll, [tɔlː], "customs"
ə påle, [poːlə], "pole"
Diphthongs
Phoneme Transcription, example and translation
æʉ sau, [sæʉ], "sheep"
æɪ jeg, [jæɪ], "I"
œʏ gøy, [gœʏ] invalid IPA characters (g), replace g with ɡ, "fun"

Stress and tonemes[edit]

Most dialects of Norwegian separate between two distinct tonemes. The way they are realised differs considerably between different dialects. The table gives only a few examples.

Stress and tone
IPA Examples Examples of realisation
[ˈ] bønder
[ˈbønːər]
[ˈbønːəʁ]
Tone 1 / acute accent:
  • low-rising tone in Oslo and Trondheim: [ˈbø̀nːə̌r]
  • falling-low tone in Bergen: [ˈbø̂nːə̀ʁ]
  • rising-falling tone in Stavanger: [ˈbø̌nːɔ̂ʁ]
  • simple primary stress in certain accents: [ˈbønːər][1]
[²] bønner
[²bønːər]
[²bønːəʁ]
Tone 2 / grave accent:
  • falling-rising tone in Oslo and Trondheim: [ˈbø̂nːə̌r]
  • rising-falling tone in Bergen: [ˈbø̌nːə̂ʁ]
  • falling-falling tone in Stavanger: [ˈbø̂nːɔ̂ʁ]
  • simple primary stress in certain accents: [ˈbønːər][1]
  1. 1.0 1.1 A few dialects have a simple primary stress rather than a contrastive pitch accent. In those accents, bønder (meaning 'farmers') and bønner (meaning 'beans') are pronounced exactly the same.