Appendix:Uyghur adjectives

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Main category: Uyghur adjectives

Gradable and non-gradable adjectives[edit]

Category of adjectival degree[edit]

Gradable adjectives (adjectives of degree)[edit]

The degree category of adjectives is the grammatical category which indicates the difference in degree of the quality expressed by an adjective or the speaker's subjective feeling about that quality.

Positive (original) degree[edit]

The original form of gradable adjectives represents the positive degree of adjectives. The positive degree of the adjective indicates the normal degree of the quality expressed by the adjective. For example:

ياخشى(yaxshi, good)

Decreasing degree[edit]

The decreasing degree form of the adjective is formed by attaching the suffix -راق(-raq) / -رەك(-rek) to the stem of the adjective. For example:

ئۇزۇن(uzun, long)ئۇزۇنراق(uzunraq, rather long; longish)
كىچىك(kichik, small)كىچىكرەك(kichikrek, somewhat small; smallish)

Emphatic degree[edit]

The emphatic degree form of the adjective is expressed by first of all pronouncing the first syllable with the sound پ(p) added to its constituent vowel, and then the whole adjective. For example:

قىزىل(qizil, red)قىپقىزىل(qipqizil, bright red)
سۈزۈك(süzük, clear; transparent)سۈپسۈزۈك(süpsüzük, really clear; totally transparent)
تىنچ(tinch, quiet; still)تىپتىنچ(tiptinch, completely silent; stock-still)

Endearing degree[edit]

The endearing degree of the adjective is formed by attaching the suffix -غىنا(-ghina) / -قىنا(-qina) / -گىنە(-gine) / -كىنە(-kine) to the adjectival stem. For example:

سالقىن(salqin, cool)سالقىنغىنا(salqinghina, delightfully cool)
ئوماق(omaq, cute; lovely)ئوماققىنا(omaqqina, adorable; lovely; winsome)
تۈزۈك(tüzük, good; decent)تۈزۈككىنە(tüzükkine, fine; nice; splendid)
ئەپچىل(epchil, clever; skilful)ئەپچىلگىنە(epchilgine, good at a lot of things)

Non-gradable adjectives (adjectives without degree)[edit]

Repeated form of the adjective[edit]

Nominalization of the adjective[edit]

In Uyghur, some adjectives are able to transfer directly into the noun class and serve to express the name of the quality expressed by themselves, or of a certain object which possesses that quality. In such cases, they are declined exactly like nouns and function as nouns in the sentence. Some adjectives are always used as plural nouns when they occur with the nominal plural suffix.


See also[edit]