English citations of DARVO
Deny, Attack, and Reverse Victim and Offender
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1997, Freyd, Jennifer J., “Violations of power, adaptive blindness, and betrayal trauma theory”, in Feminism & Psychology, volume 7, number 1, ISSN 0959-3535, pages 29:
- My proposal, currently very speculative, is that a frequent reaction of an abuser to being held accountable is the ‘DARVO’ response. ‘DARVO’ stands for ‘Deny, Attack, and Reverse Victim and Offender’.
1999, Veldhuis, Cindy B.; Freyd, Jennifer J., “Groomed for silence, groomed for betrayal”, in Rivera, M., editor, Fragment by Fragment: Feminist Perspectives on Memory and Child Sexual Abuse, Charlottetown, PEI Canada: Gynergy Books, page 257:
- This DARVO pattern is hypothesized to be one that the perpetrator uses in response to attempts at victim disclosure.
2001, Veldhuis, Cindy B., “The Next Generation: Third Wave Feminist Psychotherapy”, in Kaschak, Ellyn, editor, Women & Therapy, volume 23, number 2, Psychology Press, ISBN 9780789014108, LCCN 2001024982, page 47:
- Freyd (1996) calls this "Deny Attack Reverse Victim-Offender" (as part of her DARVO model of the methods perpetrators use to deny culpability when victims disclose abuse), and has theorized that it is actually a powerful strategy for avoiding responsibility and for making the victim feel that she is the one to blame.
2005, Freyd, Jennifer J., “What is DARVO?”, in Jennifer J. Freyd home page, retrieved 2012-05-07:
- DARVO refers to a reaction perpetrators of wrong doing, particularly sexual offenders, may display in response to being held accountable for their behavior. DARVO stands for "Deny, Attack, and Reverse Victim and Offender."
2008 February 14, Goldsmith, Rachel Evelyn; Tang, Sharon Shin Shin; Freyd, Jennifer J., “Policy and Practice Implications”, in Hilarski, Carolyn; Wodarski, John S.; Feit, Marvin D., editors, Handbook of Social Work in Child and Adolescent Sexual Abuse, Haworth Press, ISBN 9780789032027, page 259:
- Denying the occurrence of CSA and its effects or vilifying victims are examples of the DARVO phenomenon (Cheit & Freyd, 2005). DARVO is an acronym that represents a three-step process: deny the behavior; attack the accuser; and reverse the roles of victim and offender.
2009 July 17, Cousin Jethro (comment), “There are no greenhouse gases”, in Topix, retrieved 2012-05-07:
- This is a fine example of denialist DARVO, class.
2010, Doctor, Ronald Manual; Shiromoto, Frank N., The Encyclopedia of Trauma and Traumatic Stress Disorders, ISBN 9780816067640, page 94:
- deny, attack, and reverse victim and offender (DARVO) A concept introduced by Jennifer Freyd in her 1997 article on betrayal trauma theory (BTT) in Feminism & Psychology.
2011 January 19, Palmatier, Tara J., “Presto, Change-o, DARVO: Deny, Attack, and Reverse Victim and Offender”, in Shrink4Men, retrieved 2012-05-07:
- Have you ever wondered how she is able to convincingly accuse others, usually her victims, of the abusive behaviors and attitudes of which she is actually guilty? Wonder no more, the answer may be DARVO.
2012 March 25, chesterdad (comment), “Why do men always think all women are stupid?”, in Answerology, retrieved 2012-05-07:
- The "DARVO" response is pretty universal, especially for sociopaths.